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Masters Theses|Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics

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Agricultural & Applied Economics
University of Wyoming
1000 E. University Ave.
Laramie, WY 82071
Phone: (307) 766-2386
Email: coupal@uwyo.edu

The University Belongs to the People of the State.
It will Justify It’s Existence Only as it Serves the People
                    - Liberty Hyde Bailey (1907)

Department Head’s Note:
     Welcome to the Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics Graduate Thesis website. The following web section the Department’s web page is our continuing experiment to bring to our interested public the results of some of our best students. Our intention is to post all student theses. For students that we have lost contact with one can access the documents through the Coe Library ProQuest site for those that want a more detailed look at that research. For past students that we have contact with and current students that have signed a release form, we will post a PDF copy of their thesis.

All rights to the particular thesis remain with the author.

 

2011

Mina Hejazi -  Predicted Impact of a Domestic Livestock Disease Outbreak on Volume & Composition of U.S. Beef Exports

Jessica Hansen -  Profitability Analysis of Supplementing Beef Cows in Early to Mid-Gestation in a Drought Scenario

Katrina Krutkramele -  Young Consumers' Demand for Natural Sweeteners

Natalie Macsalka -  2011

Trent Roberts -  Costs and expected benefits to cattle producers of brucellosis management strategies in the greater Yellowstone area of Wyoming

Darlington Sabasi -  The Potential Impact of Captive Supplies on Spot Market Outcomes: Evidence from Laboratory Market Experiments

Lane Gardiner - Economics of ram mating behavior

Kendall Eisele - Economic comparison of feeding and weaning strategies in southeastern Wyoming beef production

Kaytlyn Cooksey - MARKET IMPACTS OF EXOGENOUS SUPPLY AND DEMAND SHOCKS IN PRIVATE NEGOTIATION: A LABORATORY MARKET APPROACH

Bryan Wilson - Regional economic impacts of bovine brucellosis under new federal regulations

 

2010

Mikol Hans Christensen - An economic analysis of the Jim Bridger power plant co2 mineralization process

Xiaojia Yao - A dual economic analysis of multi-factor productivity and R&D lags in U.S. agriculture

Mandy Kauffman - Effects of elk feedground closure on demand for elk hunting in northwest Wyoming

Eric Cropper - Factors impacting land trusts' demand for conservation easements

Yoshiyuki Igarashi - Optimal bonding system for land reclamation in oil and gas development

Heath Van Eaton - US excess demand for selected plastic goods: 1994-2003

 

2009

Cheryl Higgins - Consumer preferences and characteristics regarding farmers' markets

Milton Geiger - FEDERAL GREENHOUSE GAS REGULATION AND WYOMING’S ENERGY DERIVED TAX REVENUE

Graham McGaffin - Factors affecting conservation easement acceptance: An analysis across Colorado and Wyoming landowners

Jeff Cole - Land use determinants in the Canadian prairies: Implications for waterfowl habitat

 

2008

Bryan Strauch - Profitability and business risk of fall versus spring calving in Wyoming

John Thurow - The maverick firm in duopoly markets

 

2007

Padmaja  Ponnamaneni - Economically sustainable cattle production practices during multiple years of drought and differing price cycles

Ashley D. Miller - Factors affecting agricultural landowners' preferences for conservation easements and conserving amenities

 

2006

Christopher Cooke - The United States resource curse: An empirical growth approach

Barnett G. Sporkin-Morrison - Agriculture in transition: The case of consumer preferences for selected food attributes and type of retail food outlets in Saratov, Russia

Sara A. Skalsky - An economic analysis of mid-season nitrogen application methods on sugar beets and impacts of fuel prices on selected crops in the Big Horn Basin

Gerald Telfort - Economic evaluation of shelterbelts on agricultural lands using agroforestry practices: A Montana case study

 

2005

Sully Taulealea - A feasibility study for developing a marketing center at the Navuso Agricultural School in Fiji

Brian Lewton - An economic evaluation of Medicago rigidula in alternative crop rotations with winter wheat in southeastern Wyoming

Mathew Fleming - An economic analysis of precision application of herbicide to control skeleton leaf bursage in winter wheat

James Wasson - Hedonic pricing of Wyoming agricultural lands: Environmental amenities, productivity and sub-market regions

Stephanie Hanson - THE IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURAL LENDERS IN WYOMING: 1972-2003

 

2004

Jennifer Scheer - Measurement of concentration due to shared agency and the potential price impacts of a dominant buyer in English auction

Desiree Olson - Socio-economic analysis of Wyoming nonprofit board members

 

2003

Erika Mazza - An analysis of impediments to housing affordability: A case study of Laramie, Wyoming

Sully Taulealea - Economics of variable rate (VR) vs. uniform rate (UR) fertilization with Wyoming sugar beet

James Sedman - Economic analysis of harvest practices for alfalfa with substantial infestation of verticillium wilt

Kaila Beth Wells - Using productivity and GIS data to evaluate the implicit contribution to the price of Wyoming land of environmental amenity and agricultural property attributes

 

2002

Amy Nagler - Institutions and agricultural cooperative organizations in Wyoming

Dannele Peck - Opportunity costs of short-term water leasing in the Laramie Basin, Wyoming: Irrigation, instream flow, and wetland considerations

Richard Rumsey - Inferred purchase of agriculture conservation easement compensation for agricultural landowners in Wyoming

Amy Bittner - Preferences for agricultural land preservation in Moffat County, Colorado

Lance Gittings - The effects of concentration on an experimental private negotiation with spot delivery market

Frank Tenkorang - The impact of structural adjustment program on food availability in Ghana

Tina Opp - Economics of variable rate application of soil fumigation for sugar beet nematode control

 

2001

Andrew Haig - Economics of incorporating Austrian winter peas with alternative dryland crop rotations in southeast Wyoming

Santosh Nair - Custom versus owner harvesting of hay for beef cattle operation

 

2000

Barry Munsell - Decision cases in agriculture

Kitri Falxa - Economics of multispecies grazing: Diversification using sheep and cattle

Jonathan Gates - Market opportunities for the purchase of conservation easements in Sheridan County, Wyoming

Allison Johnston - Private negotiation trading in forward, spot, and linked deliveries: An experimental economics approach

 

1999

Gary May - Economic comparison of beef cattle calving dates and winter feeding alternatives

David Leishman - Revealed comparative advantage and the measurement of competitiveness for agricultural commodities: An empirical analysis of wool exporters

 

1998

James Jennings - Economics of integrating nematode-resistant radishes and lamb enterprises with sugarbeet rotations in northwest Wyoming

Ruidong Yang - Determining the least cost method of obtaining machinery

 

1997

Juliet May - Measuring consumer surplus of Wyoming snowmobilers using the travel cost method

Jody Woirhaye - Preferences and expectations for residency, economic trade-offs and land use controls: An analysis of Sublette County, Wyoming

 

 

1927

Frank Leroy Fleming - Marketing Honey

-----

 

 

Mina Hejazi -  Predicted Impact of a Domestic Livestock Disease Outbreak on Volume & Composition of U.S. Beef Exports

Thesis Committee:

___(Chair)

 

Abstract:

International trade in livestock products has grown in recent decades. Prevention and control of livestock diseases is an important part of maintaining such trade. Past livestock disease outbreaks have had large effects on export markets for U.S. livestock and livestock products. In 2003, for example, U.S. exports of poultry and their products fell approximately 15 percent because of an avian influenza outbreak. In this study, I explore the potential impacts of a hypothetical foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreak on world demand for U.S. fresh and frozen beef. There has been no outbreak of FMD in the U.S. since 1927, so we must rely on other countries’ experiences with FMD, and its impact on international trade to understand the potential consequences of an outbreak in the U.S. I begin by estimating export supply and import demand equations to explain volume and composition of beef trade in the world as a function of many explanatory variables, including the presence or absence of FMD in the exporting country. I use my econometric results of world beef trade to predict the potential trade impacts of an FMD outbreak in the U.S. I also measure the potential for U.S. frozen beef to act as a buffer or substitute for fresh beef in the case of FMD outbreak in the US. If an FMD outbreak were to occur in the U.S., theory suggests that our trade partners’ demand for fresh beef would decrease, but that demand for substitute products like frozen beef might increase. International trade relations and trade data are very complex though, and many econometric problems arise. I address many of the problems yet some of my results are inconsistent with economic theory. This suggests some econometric problems remain that must be addressed before reliable results can be obtained. Nonetheless, my results provide several useful insights that inform future efforts to address the research question using econometrics.

 

 

Jessica Hansen -  Profitability Analysis of Supplementing Beef Cows in Early to Mid-Gestation in a Drought Scenario

Thesis Committee:

___(Chair)

 

Abstract:

Drought in the Rocky Mountains effects small and medium cow-calf producers’ calf quality and profitability. My research objective was to estimate the profitability of early to mid-gestational maternal protein supplementation on calf quality during drought. Biophysical data were collected from 72 cows assigned to one of three treatments over a three year period: a control ration (CR), nutrient restricted ration (NR), or nutrient restricted ration with protein supplementation (NRP). Carcass data were collected from the cows’ offspring at 18 months of age. Economic data were collected using livestock price data, focus groups, and industry interviews. Enterprise budgets were constructed and a linear programming model was estimated for a 400 acre ranch. Results indicate the CR enterprise was least while the NRP enterprise most unprofitable. Supplementation in early to mid-gestation during drought does not appear to enhance profitability for small and medium producers in the region directly surrounding Albany County, Wyoming.

 

 

Katrina Krutkramele -  Young Consumers' Demand for Natural Sweeteners

Thesis Committee:

___(Chair)

 

Abstract:

Recent recommendations from the American Heart Association encourage consumers to decrease average daily sweetener consumption to one third of their current intake. This reflects the growing concern about the role that natural sweeteners, especially those added to food and drinks young people consume, play in the prevalence of obesity and diabetes in the U.S. The main objective of this study is to measure young consumers’ values of natural sweeteners’ glycemic index (GI) and to relate this information to their personal risk-preferences and relationships. Specifically, this study relies on economic experiments in a laboratory setting, involving conjoint choice and risk assessment experiments, a survey, and the subject’s anthropometric measures. The primary hypothesis is that the value assigned by a consumer of natural sweetener alternatives with different GI information varies with the degree of health consciousness of those consumers. The multinomial logit model was employed to analyze the data and determine the probability a consumer will choose a particular kind of sweetener. The consumers’ WTP for the various sweeteners and their associated GI were estimated using a compensated variation approach. Findings of this study reveal that consumers exhibited a strong interest in the GI properties for natural sweeteners and they are willing to pay more for natural sweeteners with substantially lower GIs. Results also indicate that subjects’ risk aversion had a significant impact on product selection. In addition, few socio-demographic characteristics significantly influenced sweetener purchases, including marital status. The results of this study are especially informative to labeling and taxation policy regarding young adult sugar consumption.

 

 

Natalie Macsalka -  2011

Thesis Committee:

___(Chair)

 

Abstract:

 

 

 

Trent Roberts -  Costs and expected benefits to cattle producers of brucellosis management strategies in the greater Yellowstone area of Wyoming

Thesis Committee:

___(Chair)

 

Abstract:

Cattle producers in the Greater Yellowstone Area implement a variety of management strategies to reduce the risk of cattle contracting brucellosis from elk, including: fencing haystacks, having Wyoming Game and Fish haze elk away from cattle, administering adult booster vaccination, adopting an alternative feeding schedule, spaying heifers, delayed grazing on high-risk allotments, hiring a rider to haze elk, and running stocker steers. Uncertainty about the cost and effectiveness of these strategies makes it difficult for producers to decide which (if any) to implement. To reduce uncertainty, I first calculate the cost of each management strategy, and then use expected value theory to estimate: (1) expected net benefit, (2) minimum level of effectiveness required to justify implementation, and (3) baseline cost of brucellosis required to justify implementation. Results indicate that Wyoming Game and Fish hazing of elk, fencing a haystack, and adult booster vaccination generate the largest expected net benefit, require the lowest levels of effectiveness to justify implementation, and require the lowest baseline brucellosis cost to justify implementation. Although switching to a stocker steer operation eliminates the risk of brucellosis, it is less economically-appealing than several other management strategies.

 

 

Darlington Sabasi -  The Potential Impact of Captive Supplies on Spot Market Outcomes: Evidence from Laboratory Market Experiments

Thesis Committee:

___(Chair)

 

Abstract:

Laboratory market experiments were designed to investigate the potential impact of matching risks created from early trading by a subset of market agents. Some market actors had the opportunity to trade (in bargaining period one) prior to everyone else trading, simulating a captive supplies scenario for bargaining period two. Results indicate that sellers unable to participate in the prior bargaining period are at a disadvantage due to advance production. Additionally, these sellers face inventory loss and matching risks, trade at lower prices and earn less compared to those sellers able to trade in the previous period. Buyers who do not get to trade in bargaining period one offer slightly higher prices when they trade in bargaining period two than prices offered by buyers who traded in the first bargaining period. As the percentage of participants involved in the initial bargaining period increases, matching risk increases, and lower prices are observed in bargaining period two (when all market actors trade) leading to less earnings for sellers. The results support concerns from sellers not participating in alternative marketing arrangements (AMAs) that these AMAs result in lower earnings for them.

 

 

Lane Gardiner (2011): ECONOMICS OF RAM MATING BEHAVIOR

Thesis Committee:

Dr. Benjamin Rashford (Chair)

John Hewlett

Dr. Brenda Alexander

 

Abstract:

Animal science research has called attention to the importance of ram breeding competence; however, relatively little is known about ranch-level economic consequences of improved ram battery management. I use a detailed budget and stochastic simulation model to estimate returns to management for five alternative ram management strategies that entail testing ram sexual performance and/or purchasing proven high performing rams. I use the budget and simulation to model three different range flock sizes under each alternative. Results indicate that increasing the number of high performing rams in a flock increases lamb sale weights and significantly reduces the risk of low returns. High performing rams also enable a sheep producer to reduce the status quo ram battery size without negatively impacting lamb crops. For all flock sizes, a smaller ram battery composed entirely of high performing rams provides the highest average returns to management and the least risk of low returns. The benefits provided by high performing rams, however, are sensitive to the cost of identifying and purchasing proven high performers.

 

 

KENDALL EISELE  (2011): ECONOMIC COMPARISON OF FEEDING AND WEANING STRATEGIES IN SOUTHEASTERN WYOMING BEEF PRODUCTION

Thesis Committee:

John Ritten (Co-Chair)

Christopher Bastian (Co-Chair)

Steve Paisley

Dr. Benjamin Rashford

 

Abstract:

The current market environment for corn prices place many firms involved with cattle feeding in financial distress. Ranchers are looking for ways that can ease the burden of higher feed costs and the uncertainty in the grain market. Animal science studies point to the possibility of implementing low cost feeding strategies by only feeding high cost feedstuffs at critical life stage. Earlier weaning dates are also identified as a strategy that could potentially provide superior carcass quality while reducing overall feed intake. Profitability comparisons are made between selling at weaning (at various weaning dates) and feeding until slaughter given the alternative feeding and weaning strategies. The profitability of the these management strategies are analyzed using data from experiments conducted as a part of research conducted at the University of Wyoming James C. Hageman Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Center (SAREC) in Lingle, Wyoming. These data are analyzed using a Monte Carlo simulation simulating both input and output prices for distributions based on historical data to assess overall profitability of the alternative management strategies.

 

 

Kaytlyn Cooksey (2011): MARKET IMPACTS OF EXOGENOUS SUPPLY AND DEMAND SHOCKS IN PRIVATE NEGOTIATION: A LABORATORY MARKET APPROACH

Thesis Committee:

Christopher Bastian (Chair)

Dale Menkhaus

Owen Phillips

 

Abstract:

Exogenous shocks in agriculture can occur from weather conditions, disease outbreaks, increased technology, and many other factors. Understanding the effects of these shocks on market outcomes could provide a better understanding of the agribusiness sector and food supply chain as it moves away from competitive institutions and toward more privately negotiated transactions. Laboratory experimental methods are used to investigate the impacts of supply and/or demand shocks on prices, quantities traded, and earnings in both a forward and spot market. Results suggest buyers may have a bargaining advantage as the trend towards private negotiation continues. Buyer and seller earnings are generally lower in private negotiation when risk is present, compared to a competitive institutions. Even though overall surplus is less in private negotiation, the disparity in buyer and seller earnings is generally less. As this trend continues, sellers will be better off moving toward forward delivery mechanisms and away from spot delivery. This is a departure from the previous experimental studies.

 

 

Bryan Wilson (2011): REGIONAL ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF BOVINE BRUCELLOSIS UNDER NEW FEDERAL REGULATIONS

Thesis Committee:

Dannele Peck (Chair)

Roger Coupal (Co-Chair)

Steve Paisley

 

Abstract:

A national bovine brucellosis eradication program was initiated in the US in 1934. The prevalence of brucellosis in cattle herds has since been reduced from 11.5% to .0001%, at a cost of $3.5 billion. Elk and bison in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) are the only remaining natural reservoir for brucellosis in the US, and are the source of recent outbreaks in cattle. Brucellosis eradication efforts are therefore shifting emphasis from cattle-to-cattle transmission to wildlife-to-cattle transmission. USDA-APHIS recently proposed changes to the national brucellosis eradication policy that would focus labor and capital resources on the GYA, rather than the entire state of Wyoming. The purpose of my research is to estimate and compare the economic impacts of a brucellosis outbreak under APHIS's historical versus revised brucellosis eradication policy. I first use enterprise budget analysis to estimate the direct impacts of a brucellosis outbreak on cattle producers' profits. Changes in profit then serve as "first round effects" in an input/output analysis of Wyoming's economy, which indicates how direct impacts to the cattle industry ripple through the state's economy. Results reveal that a producer whose herd contracts brucellosis loses $40,000 to $234,000. A producer whose herd is quarantined because of possible exposure to an infected herd loses $2,000 to $8,000. Regional models reveal that a brucellosis outbreak, and associated cattle testing, injects revenue into Wyoming's economy and stimulates output and employment (assuming federal agencies provide compensation). APHIS's revised eradication policy reduces the number of cattle tested during an outbreak, and therefore reduces the magnitude of revenues injected into Wyoming's economy. Although my results suggest brucellosis has a positive impact on Wyoming's economy, these benefits come at the expense of federal agencies and taxpayers. Therefore, from a national perspective (and an individual cattle producer's perspective) brucellosis is economically costly.

 

 

Mikol Hans Christensen (2010): AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE JIM BRIDGER POWER PLANT CO2 MINERALIZATION PROCESS

Thesis Committee:

David “Tex” Taylor (Chair)

Katta Jayaram Reddy

Thomas K. Foulke

 

Abstract:

Concerns for rising levels of CO2 in the atmosphere have lead to a myriad of schemes to reduce emissions. Many of these are complicated, expensive, and untried. Coal-fired electrical generation accounts for about 49 percent of U.S. electricity generation. Shifting generation capacity away from coal is the goal of many, yet as this statistic shows, the U.S. has a heavy dependency on coal-fired base-load generation. What is needed is a way to retrofit existing coal fired power plants to mitigate at least some of the giga-tonnes of CO2 released annually.

Carbon Capture and Storage in association with greenhouse gases are a major concern in the world today. This thesis is an outgrowth of a research partnership between the University of Wyoming and the Jim Bridger Power Plant (Rocky Mountain Power) to develop a process for capture and mineralization of flue gas carbon dioxide (CO2) using an accelerated mineral carbonization process with fly ash particles as the absorbent.  This process may have several advantages over other approaches because it is an environmentally acceptable, single step process occurring at near ambient pressures and temperatures that can compliment conventional CCS processes.  In addition the use of fly ash particles as an absorbent avoids the costs of processing or engineering an absorbent.  The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate the capture costs and economic feasibility of the mineralization process.  

Two models were used to estimate the capture costs and economic feasibility of the Jim Bridger Power Plant CO2 Mineralization Project (JBP).  The first was a cost of capture model which was used to estimate CO2 capture costs and how changes in the CO2 to ash capture ratio and quantities of CO2 captured affect capture costs.  The second was a financial feasibility model which considered the time value of money.  This second model considered the net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR) for the process using different pricing scenarios and processing parameters.  The analysis was based on a full size reactor system capable of capturing 90 percent of the CO2 emitted by Unit 2 of the Jim Bridger Power Plant.  Unit 2 is a 530 megawatt pulverized coal-fired generator which emits 4.9 million tones of CO2 annually.  The cost estimates for the full size reactor system were developed by scaling up from a pilot project currently being conducted at the plant.

The results show estimates that range from $7.37 to $27.30 per metric tonne of CO2 captured. This range compares favorably with other estimates in the literature. Furthermore, since this system could be retrofitted to an existing power plant, added costs would be considerably less per installed kilowatt-hour. Our preliminary estimates place this cost at $94 per installed kilowatt hour.This thesis will introduce the process, give an update on the project and present our preliminary findings. 

 

 

Xiaojia Yao (2010): A DUAL ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF MULTI-FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY AND R&D LAGS IN U.S. AGRICULTURE

Thesis Committee:

Matt Andersen (Chair)

Roger Coupal

David Aadland

Nicole Ballenger

 

Abstract:

Agricultural productivity growth is one of the key components to insuring an adequate supply of food. This research examines trends in multi-factor productivity ( MFP ) index in U.S. agriculture for the period 1949-2002, including 'dual' estimates of MFP calculated as a ratio of aggregate input and output prices. The dual MFP examined is highly correlated to the primal one, but also differs substantially in terms of annual averages as well as sub-periods. It is used to examine the role of public agricultural R&D in the process of knowledge production and productivity growth in U.S. agriculture. It is aimed to identify a preferred research lag specification for estimating knowledge production functions from a dual approach, and compare the results with the primal approach. The results indicate that investments in R&D take a very long time to generate a measurable economic benefit, which raises some interesting questions about underinvestment and intergenerational equity.

 

Mandy Kauffman (2010): EFFECTS OF ELK FEEDGROUND CLOSURE ON DEMAND FOR ELK HUNTING IN NORTHWEST WYOMING

Thesis Committee:

Dannele Peck (Chair)

Benjamin Rashford

Everett Balden

 

Abstract:

Since the early 1900s, elk in northwest Wyoming have been fed during winter months at 23 feedground locations. Feedgrounds artificially congregate large numbers of animals and thereby facilitate disease spread. One disease of concern is brucellosis, a bacterial disease that causes abortions in ungulates. Elk ( Cervus elaphus ) and bison ( Bison bison ) serve as reservoirs for the disease and may potentially transmit the disease to domestic cattle ( Bos taurus ). Closure or phasing out of feedgrounds has been proposed as one potential management strategy for mitigating brucellosis risks. An improved understanding of the potential economic impacts of this management strategy may be useful in guiding policy decisions.

This study models the potential effects of elk feedground closure (and resulting declines in elk populations) on demand for elk hunts in NW Wyoming. The first model examines changes in hunter success resulting from decreased elk populations. The second model then estimates the indirect (hunter success) and direct (e.g., perceptions of satisfaction associated with seeing elk) effects of elk population on demand for elk licenses. Model results are then used to simulate the effects of feedground closure on demand for elk hunts in NW Wyoming.

Results indicate that resident hunters are more responsive to changes in elk population resulting from feedground closure than nonresident hunters (who often hire an outfitter). Simulation results predict a potential loss of 400 applicants within the feedground area in response to a 50% decrease in elk population; one-quarter of this loss would be from nonresident applicants. Although individual-year losses to outfitters may be relatively small, sustained reductions in elk populations across multiple years will result in larger cumulative losses to outfitters through time.

 

 

Eric Cropper (2010): FACTORS IMPACTING LAND TRUSTS' DEMAND FOR CONSERVATION EASEMENTS

Thesis Committee:

Christopher Bastian (Co-Chair)

Don McLeod (Co-Chair)

David Aadland

Catherine Keske

 

Abstract :

The Intermountain West has witnessed rapid population growth over the past two decades. Growth driven development of open space lands presents a serious threat to the production of environmental and agrarian amenities. An emerging market for conservation easements has appeared in an effort to preserve private open space lands and the public goods that they provide. The object of this research is to identify the determinants of land trusts' demand for conservation easements.

A survey designed to reveal land trusts' preferences for conservation easements was sent to governing members of land trusts across the Intermountain West. Collected data from stated choice questions were analyzed using random utility models.

Model results identify significant easement attributes as well as attitudinal and demographic factors in land trusts' demand for conservation easements. Results also suggest indicate that land trusts may be segmented based on attitudes or conservation focus into groups with more homogenous preferences. Knowledge of factors influencing land trust easement acceptance could reduce matching risk and transactions costs for agents in this emerging market. This Pareto improvement could be gained by matching easement sellers and land trust buyers that have compatible interests.

 

 

Yoshiyuki Igarashi (2010): OPTIMAL BONDING SYSTEM FOR LAND RECLAMATION IN OIL AND GAS DEVELOPMENT

Thesis Committee:

Matt Andersen (Chair)

Roger Coupal

David Finnoff

 

Abstract:

Oil and gas developers are required to post an environmental bond to cover the cost of land reclamation. As of 2009, there were more than 68,000 active oil and gas wells in the state of Wyoming operated by approximately 900 separate firms. This level of activity suggests that reclamation issues will be important in the future as these wells are either properly reclaimed or abandoned.

The objective of this study is to establish a dynamic model for oil and gas development that includes a reclamation bond and the cost of reclamation. I provide analytical solutions to the variables of interest and show phase diagrams indicating a stable equilibrium on a saddle path. I also provide numerical simulations of oil and gas development, and solve for an optimal reclamation bonding rate per well using the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) software. The results indicate that current bonding rates are too low and should be increased and tied to production.

 

 

Heath Van Eaton (2010): US EXCESS DEMAND FOR SELECTED PLASTIC GOODS: 1994-2003

Thesis Committee:

Ed Bradley (Co-Chair)

Nicole Ballinger (Co-Chair)

Matt Andersen

Brent Hathaway

 

Abstract:

Elasticity of import demand is estimated for three selected plastic good categories for the period 1994-2003 that exhibit the largest growing trade deficits. Price and volume analysis was conducted to help determine price leaders and trends related to respective changes in market shares for the plastics goods. Price variables consist of the United States, China and a weighted price index for all other importing countries (Rest of World). China's growing market dominance in all three plastics goods categories justified its own pricing variable. The empirical findings indicate that the elasticity of demand for polyethylene bags was inelastic for all countries except for China, which was -1.47, blinds made of polyethylene were all inelastic and gloves made of rubber were all inelastic except for the Rest of World variable at -1.43.

 

 

Cheryl Higgins (2009): CONSUMER PREFERENCES AND CHARACTERISTICS REGARDING FARMERS' MARKETS

Thesis Committee:

Edward Bradley (Chair)

Matt Andersen

Rhoda Schantz

 

Abstract (Summary)

Farmers' markets have become increasingly popular in recent years with more consumers preferring to buy local food directly from the producer. Farmers' markets are becoming an alternative to mass-produced foods offered at super markets and are viewed by many consumers as a safer, more environmentally friendly way to buy food. Despite recent food safety scares, farmers' markets remain relatively free of the stringent regulations in place for large-scale producers. The relationships and interactions developed between consumers and producers at farmers' markets have replaced the usual forms of regulation and enforcement. A comparison of regulation in the United States and United Kingdom revealed that neither country regulates food safety even though the UK does promote a certification program. Economic literature related to farmers' markets indicated little information is available about consumers' assumption/opinions regarding food safety at farmers' markets or the level of regulation they would expect. A simple survey was constructed with questions identifying the demographic features of customers at the market, products purchased, reasons to shop, and opinions on issues related to regulation and food safety. The survey was distributed at the Laramie, WY farmers' market with sixty-two consumers participating. Survey results indicated that many consumers approve of certain levels of regulation related to food safety, but are not concerned about current sanitation and food safety conditions at farmers' markets.

 

 

Milton Geiger  (2009): FEDERAL GREENHOUSE GAS REGULATION AND WYOMING’S ENERGY DERIVED TAX REVENUE

Thesis Committee: 

Roger Coupal (co-chair) 

Don McLeod (co-chair)

Harold Bergman

Andy Hansen,

Mark Northam

 

Abstract:

The implementation of federal climate change legislation would alter the relative price advantages of fossil fuels produced in Wyoming and resultant tax revenue.  A policy model demonstrates changes in the prices and quantities produced of coal, natural gas, oil, and wind energy, including electrical generation and multiplier effects, from federal action.  With CO2-e prices ranging from $0-$70/ton, Wyoming tax revenue would increase, due to tremendous growth in price and production of natural gas that substitute for declines in coal revenue.  Wind energy contributions to tax revenue would remain limited due to a low effective tax rate relative to fossil fuels.   

 

 

Graham McGaffin (2009): FACTORS AFFECTING CONSERVATION EASEMENT ACCEPTANCE: AN ANALYSIS ACROSS COLORADO AND WYOMING LANDOWNERS

Thesis Committee:

Don McLeod (Co-Chair)

Christopher Bastian (Co-Chair)

William Gribb

 

Abstract:

The Intermountain West region of the United States has experienced high population growth throughout the past twenty years. Conservation easements (CEs) may reduce the impacts of land fragmentation and adverse impacts on public goods from development.

The objective of this research is to identify variables that influence landowners' decisions regarding acceptance of CEs. A landowner's decisions may be influenced by his or her perceived role as a producer, consumer, and/or citizen and as such the choice model reflects these perspectives. Data gathered from a 2007 survey elicited responses from a representative, stratified, random sample of Colorado and Wyoming landowners. Data were analyzed in a random utility framework using random parameters logit.

The results identified that landowners were influenced by all three decision-making perspectives. A state of residence comparison identified that Colorado landowners are more likely to choose a CE, and significance of particular variables may partially explain why this may be the case.

 

 

Jeffrey Cole (2009): LAND USE DETERMINANTS IN THE CANADIAN PRAIRIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR WATERFOWL HABITAT

Thesis Committee:

Ben Rashford (Chair)

Chris Bastian

David Aadland

 

Abstract:

The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR), spanning approximately 176,000,000 acres of the US and Canadian Great Plains, is one of the most important and threatened waterfowl habitats in North America (Ducks Unlimited 2008). Waterfowl habitat in the Canadian PPR is threatened by land use conversion from winter wheat, fall rye, pasture, and hay to oilseeds and spring grains. Since the Canadian Prairie Provinces are 90 percent privately owned (Olson 2004), waterfowl conservation organizations need to understand how private landowners respond to price and policy changes to target habitat conservation programs.

This study uses data from the Canadian prairies to econometrically model land use change amongst nine major agricultural land uses: spring wheat, oats, barley, winter wheat, fall rye, canola, flaxseed, pasture, and hay. Following economic theory, the econometric land use model includes economic (e.g. revenue), site-specific (e.g. soil quality) and regional (e.g. population density) relevant explanatory variables. The econometric results provide information on when and where land use changes occur. Furthermore, policy simulations using crop revenue elasticities and biological information help determine which land use policies create the largest increases in the number of waterfowl nests hatched. Results indicate revenue affects on other uses acreage significantly impacts waterfowl production. Additionally, waterfowl organizations should target programs to increase the acreage of fall grains in regions with historically longer and warmer growing seasons. In contrast, waterfowl organizations should target programs to increase hay acreage in regions with historically shorter and colder growing season. Additionally, programs to increase pasture and hay acreage should be in locations with high proportions of low quality land.

 

 

Brian Strauch (2008): PROFITABILITY AND BUSINESS RISK OF FALL VERSUS SPRING CALVING IN WYOMING

Thesis Committee:

Larry Held

Dannele Peck

Douglas Hixon

James Jacobs

 

Abstract:

The profitability and business risk (i.e. profit variability) associated with three spring calving and two fall calving enterprises are analyzed using linear programming (GAMS) and @RISK Simulation. Twenty years of livestock price data, published budgets, and interview data are used in the analysis. For all enterprises, the fall cow-short yearling model is the most profitable enterprise and renders the least business risk. The spring cow-short yearling enterprise is the least profitable and renders the most business risk of all enterprises.

 

 

John Thurow (2008): THE MAVERICK FIRM IN DUOPOLY MARKETS

Thesis Committee:

Dale Menkhaus (Co-Chair)

Mariah Ehmke (Co-Chair)

Owen Phillips

 

Abstract:

Symmetry in the size of rivals tends to promote tacit cooperation. Asymmetry discourages cooperation. Hence, as the Herfindahl-Hirschman index (HHI) for two firms moves from 5000 to a greater value or as asymmetry in a duopoly market increases, there may be less cooperation in the market. It is commonly believed that the cause of greater competition with a higher HHI is the unwillingness of the small firm to cooperate. The small firm is a maverick in the duopoly game. Against this perspective, the Folk Theorem is used to demonstrate that as the market share of a firm increases from 50% the larger firm should be less willing to cooperate and the smaller firm should be more willing to tacitly collude. There is no small maverick firm according to the Folk Theorem.

We use experimental markets to study the intensity of rivalry between two firms as relative market shares change. Subjects as duopolists make quantity choices from the normal form of a two-player game. The game mimics an infinitely repeated series of choices. Payoffs are profits. In three sessions duopolists in six markets each have (1) a fifty percent share of the market, (2) either a sixty percent or forty percent share, or (3) either an eighty percent or twenty percent share. Our data show that asymmetry generally promotes increasingly intense rivalry between players. This observation holds true even when the small firm has only a 20% share of the market. Asymmetry is conceptually imposed by taking business away from one firm, giving it a declining market share. In the market structure with 60% and 40% relative shares, rivalry is so intense that total sales increase relative to the larger, symmetric market structure.

 

 

Padmaja Ponnamaneni (2007): “ECONOMICALLY SUSTAINABLE CATTLE PRODUCTION PRACTICES DURING MULTIPLE YEARS OF DROUGHT AND DIFFERING PRICE CYCLES”

Thesis Committee: 

Chris T. Bastian (Chair)  

Michael A. Smith, 

Sian Mooney,  

Steven I. Paisley, 

 

Abstract:

Portions of the western US including Wyoming are experiencing extended periods of drought. If best management practices are followed under different intensities of drought, timing of drought and differing cattle price cycles, then ranch incomes would be higher. Common drought management practices followed by Wyoming cattle producers are analyzed using a multi-period mathematical optimization model and recommendations are made based on the results.

 

 

Ashley D. Miller (2007): “FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL LANDOWNERS' PREFERENCES FOR CONSERVATION EASEMENTS AND CONSERVING AMENITIES”

Thesis Committee:

Christopher T. Bastian (Chair)

Donald M. McLeod

Harold Bergman

 

Abstract:

 Private lands in the Intermountain West and elsewhere are being utilized for rural home sites, and one reason for this stems from the public's demand for open space and related amenities. One tool that is currently being used to aid in the preservation of open space by landowners is conservation easements. This tool preserves amenities through the purchase or donation of the developmental rights for a piece of property. Much of the current research on conservation easements has focused on the general public's amenities preferences for land preservation, what they will use the land for and how it should be preserved. Examining open space preservation issues from a landownr's perspective fills a gap in the literature. This research investigates the different factors that affect agricultural landowners' preferences for conservation easements and conserving amenities.

 

 

Barnett Sporkin-Morrison (2006): AGRICULTURE IN TRANSITION: THE CASE OF CONSUMER PREFERENCES FOR SELECTED FOOD ATTRIBUTES AND TYPE OF RETAIL FOOD OUTLETS IN SARATOV, RUSSIA

Thesis Committee:

Edward Bradley (Chair)

Dale Menkhaus

Terri Rittenburg

 

Abstract:

Pilot-study survey data gathered in Saratov, Russia, in 2004-05 is analyzed in order to help determine the ability of U.S. agricultural exports to receive a greater share of consumer expenditures in the Russian Federation,  whether Russian consumers show consumer ethnocentrism, and whether Russian consumers have homogenous preference characteristics for food. It is found that sample consumers do not demonstrate consumer ethnocentrism based upon a theoretical framework of transaction cost economics (TCE) and an understanding of Russia’s agricultural history, while principal components analysis results suggest several sample consumer clusters most likely exist with the Russian market. As transaction costs decrease and competition increases in the Russian market, the Russian market has the potential of seeing an increased amount of consumer expenditures for U.S. agricultural  markets; however, further research is needed in order to determine the competitiveness of U.S. agricultural products in the Russian market. 

 

 

Sara Skalsky (2006): AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF MID-SEASON NITROGEN APPLICATION METHODS ON SUGAR BEETS AND IMPACTS OF FUEL PRICES ON SELECTED CROPS IN THE BIG HORN BASIN

Thesis Committee:

Jim Jacobs (Chair)

Bart Stevens

Dale Menkhaus

Roger Coual

Abdel Mesbah

 

Abstract:

Agronomic and economic analyses were conducted for alternative mid-season nitrogen application methods on sugar beets.  Partial budgeting was used to determine the most economic choice among the application methods.  Enterprise budgets were developed to determine the return to management for corn silage, corn for grain, alfalfa, malt barley, sugar beets, dry beans, which are the primary crops in the Big Horn Basin and enterprise budgets for alfalfa seed, rye grass seed.  A linear programming model was developed to determine the impacts of alternative fuel and nitrogen prices on profits and enterprise mix. Increases in fuel prices by $1.00, $1.50, and $2.00 per gallon from a 2000-2002 base budget for the primary crops decreased profitability by 34%, 51% and 60%, respectively, for a 600 acre farm.  Increases in the price of nitrogen by $0.40 and $0.50 per pound for the $1.00 per gallon increase in fuel price scenario decreased profitability 29% and 50%, respectively, compared to the base budget.  For a $2.00 per gallon increase in fuel price and increases in nitrogen prices of $0.40 and $0.50 per pound, profitability decreased 64% and 82%, respectively, relative to the base budget. 

 

 

Gerald Telfort (2006): ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF SHELTERBELTS ON AGRICULTURAL LANDS USING AGROFORESTRY PRACTICES: A MONTANA CASE STUDY

Thesis Committee:

Edward Bradley (Chair)

Roger Coupal

Lewis Bagby

 

Abstract:

Nowadays, shelterbelts or windbreaks are seen to be one of the agroforestry practices to help private landowners to control soil erosion, to control yields of crops and to reduce carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere. An economic evaluation was performed to investigate if the installation of shelterbelts on Montana grain farms offers operators sufficient private benefits to induce farmers to switch their operations from farming only to agroforestry with or without the support of American government agencies. Data has been collected from several governmental, private and Montana sources to estimate the economic impact of shelterbelts. Sensitivity and break-even analyses are used to evaluate the net present value and the internal rate of returns that help farmers choose the best option for agroforestry adoption. The results show that substantial government cost-sharing is necessary, under current conditions, to induce private landowners to adopt agroforestry.

 

 

Christopher Cooke (2006): THE UNITED STATES RESOURCE CURSE: AN EMPIRICAL GROWTH APPROACH

Thesis Committee:

Roger Coupal ( Chair)

David Aadland

Ed Bradley

 

Abstract:

The resource curse hypothesis predicts that resource abundant countries experience relatively lower income growth ratest than countries with small resource endowments. This research provides robust econometric evidence that the resource curse applies to individual states within the U.S. and presents a simple theoretical model describing the transmission of the curse. The relationhship between state income growth and resource intensity is negative and statistically significant across different measures of income, sample periods, and control variables. Lured by the easy riches associated with resource production, states with high initial resource endowments may be less likely to invest in research and development and consequently experience lower income growth. 

 

 

Sully Taulealea (2005): A FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR DEVELOPING A MARKETING CENTER AT THE NAVUSO AGRICULTURAL SCHOOL IN FIJI

Thesis Committee:

Edward Bradley (Co-Chair)

James Thompson (Co-Chair)

Gary Massey

Terri Rittenberg

 

Abstract:

The economic viability of constructing a market center (MC) to improve the marketing of various agricultural commodities from Fiji is the focus of this study.   The MC is proposed to be built on the Navuso Agricultural School’s (NAS) 350 hectare farmland, under the ownership of the Methodist Church in Fiji. The multifaceted MC will be responsible for holistic marketing of commodities at the domestic and international arena. Training on marketing and criteria involved in producing market tailored products from the MC will be provided for farm employees and students at NAS.

The major capital costs in Fiji dollars are the building facility ($550,000), office equipment ($14,080), 2 dump-tanks ($10,000), 2 milk-vats/3 coolers ($124,000) and auto expenses ($230,000). These expenses are annualized over the lifetime to give the present value on an annuity basis. The wages of 14 employees and other expenditures linked to the MC are also factored in the economic analysis. 

A 5 year economic analysis (YR1-YR5) on nine agricultural commodities showed that the anticipated gross revenue (GR) to be realized was $265,027, $388,962, $539,602, $652,189 and $787,261 respectively. The expenditure in the operating market center from  Yr1-Yr5 stood at $569,982, $587,086, $608,730, $628,584, and $657,080. From Yr1-Yr3, the market center will be running at a loss of $304, 955, $198,124 and $69,128. However, an annual positive net return (NR) of $23,605 and $130,180 will be realized by Yr4 and Yr5 respectively. 

The export of cassava and taro is planned to begin by Yr3. The projected expansion of exports and dairy production were factored into the economic analysis from Yr8-Yr20. Therefore results pertaining to this analysis after Yr5 showed that by Yr7, the MC will have paid off its accruing net revenue losses from Yr1 and will have a positive accumulating NR of $15,934.  By (YR) 8, 10, 15, and 20, the projected accumulated NR will stand at $0.24, $0.65, $1.59 and $3.05 million (M) respectively. This did not take into account the anticipated increase in revenue that will come by way of added value (e.g.) chips, confectionery, pure fruit juice (etc) and diversifying potential agricultural commodities outside of the nine commodities initially factored for this study. As a whole the economic analysis showed to be economically viable. 

It is proposed that the Methodist Church provide the $1.4M start-up capital required to get the project off the ground at a 5% interest rate. The advantage with the Methodist Church providing the whole start-up capital is that it will reap a larger economic pie in return and will enable it to re-inject capital to the MC to expand the economic base of the center and fund the proposed economic projects from Yr5. 

Stabilizing the dairy sector for the MC should be a top priority as there are potential market openings in Fiji. Dairy farming has proven to be a high-income earner for NAS in the mid-eighties and early-nineties and must be revived. This study revealed that accumulating gross revenue of $491,691 can be achieved by Yr5; however, 30% is accounted for  feed costs besides employee and operational expenditure. 

Complying with phytosanitary regulations of the World Trade Organization (WTO) will be a strong focus of the MC coupled with high quality packaging, labeling and efficient distribution. The introduction of a High Tempurature Force Air (HTFA) quarantine treatment, diversifying partnership to farmers and cooperate companies domestically and in the region, establishment of food restaurants in Fiji and abroad, and incorporating of an eco-tourism venture on the study site will be incorporated under phase two of the development project pending further economic analysis. 

NAS has the potential to host a prolific MC as it has the land resource, accessibility, basic infrastructure and the proposed economic plan in place. Based on the assessment of the various government and private groups, it can be concluded that in order to lift the marketability of agricultural products in Fiji, a stable marketing intermediary needs to be put in place. It is the vehicle to link farmers to the domestic and global market and also opens up for the increased diversification and market security. It will also consolidate the Fiji government’s efforts to restructure the ailing sugar industry through diversification and bring about increased efficiency and productivity to other potential commodities. 

 

 

Brian Lewton (2005): AN ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF MEDICAGO RIGIDULA IN ALTERNATIVE CROP ROTATIONS WITH WINTER WHEAT IN SOUTHEASTERN WYOMING

Thesis Committee:

Larry Held (Chair)

Ed Bradley

James Krall

 

Abstract:

Successful crop production in Southeastern Wyoming depends on the effcient use of available resources, including precipitation and soil nutrients. Crop rotations which include winter wheat and Medicago rigdula (medic/annual alfalfa) for grazing or hay may improve overll long-term net returns by maximizing precipitation usage, augmenting soil fertility and improving soil physical properties. Objectives were to examine potential net returns  from alternative dryland legume crop rotations with Medicago rigidula and compare them with a traditional wheat-fallow system of production. Alternative dryland legume rotations include 6-year wheat-medic/annual alfalfa cattle grazing and combination cattle grazing/hay systems, and an alternating 4-year wheat-medic/annual alfalfa grazing rotation. Both the 4-year rotation and the 6-year grazing/hay combination rotation appear  to provide the best opportunity to improve overall net returns and protect against downside risk when compared to traitional wheat-fallow systems. 

 

 

Mathew Fleming (2005): AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF PRECISION APPLICATION OF HERBICIDE TO CONTROL SKELETON LEAF BURSAGE IN WINTER WHEAT

Thesis Committee: 

Larry Held

Stephen Miller

Thomas Foulke

 

Abstract:

The wheat industry plays a significant role in the Wyoming agricultural sector. The profitability of dryland wheat farming is vital for economic stability of the southeastern regions of Wyoming. By decreasing costs associated with production, profit margins could stabilize.  Skeletonleaf bursage is an increasing threat to wheat production . Four years of field trials were conducted at the Archer Research and Extension Center in southeat Wyoming. These trials concluded that teh presence of skelenleaf bursage has a negative impact on wheat yields. This study examines the use of precision herbicide application compared with whole field application. In doing so the herbicide application is a profitable venture for the larger producers who have minimal infestation. The cost of equipment and information make the use of precision herbicided application for the contol of skeletonleaf bursage a producer choice rather than a production necessity.

 

 

James Wasson (2005): HEDONIC PRICING OF WYOMING AGRICULTURAL LANDS: ENVIRONMENTAL AMENITIES, PRODUCTIVITY AND SUB-MARKET REGIONS 

Thesis Committee: 

Don McLeod

Chris Bastian

Mark Sunderman

 

Abstract:

Agricultural land within Wyoming contains many scenic and environmental amenities, but at the same time contains productive value for agriculture. A hedonic pricing model (HPM) is estimated to determine the marginal value each attribute contributes to predicted agricultural land value ceteris paribus. Many econometric concerns in variable and regression development are considered. The econometric concerns are addressed to estimate a HPM that is the best linear unbiased and efficient estimate of predicted agricultural land value. The FGLS Full HPM better predicts agricultural land value becasue it is better specified and jointly addresses heterskedasticity and spatial autocorrelation. Sub-market regions are used to incorporate the HPM variable parameter estimates valuses and determine where Wyoming county assessors might account for amenity values for purpose of taxation. Accounting for amenity values and productive land value in a HPM may provide a more accurate estimate of land values for taxation purposes in the western sub-market regiona as compared to the rest of the state. 

 

 

Stephanie Hanson (2005): THE IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURAL LENDERS IN WYOMING: 1972-2003

Thesis Committee: 

Larry Held

Edward Bradley

Sherrill Shaffer

 

Abstract:

This thesis is a historical evaluation of agricultural leners in Wyoming with the purpose of meeting four main abjectives. First, identify the most prominent agricultural real estate and non-real estate lenders in Wyoming from  1972 to 2003. Second, examine the relationship between changes in agricultural loan volumes and the status of the economy from 1972 through 2003. Third, determine if lenders reactions to market changes are compariable with respect to the annual rates of change. Fourth, determine if the Wyoming State Land and Investment Board has been acting as a credit stabilizer in the Wyoming agricultural real estate market. 

 

 

Jennifer Scheer (2004): MEASUREMENT OF CONCENTRATION DUE TO SHARED AGENCY AND THE POTENTIAL PRICE IMPACTS OF A DOMINANT BUYER IN ENGLISH AUCTION

Thesis Committee:

Dale Menkhaus(Chair)

Owen Phillips

Chris Bastian

 

Abstract:

The objective for this research is to identify the impact on prices of multiple principals, in an already concentrated industry, sharing – knowingly or not – a common agent, in a repeated English auction for cull cows, because the agent enjoys a dominant position in that market.  The data that are used for the analysis consist of information taken from sale tickets, which were provided from a single auction firm selling primarily cull cows.  The focus of the research is to determine how cow characteristics, buyer behavior and market structure factors impact the selling price.  The primary emphasis is on the impact of a dominant buyer, created through the use of a shared agent and the potential price impacts of that dominant buyer within the auction.

The results of an econometric analysis reveal that cow characteristics, buyer behavior and market structure variables all have impacts on the selling price.  Detailed results show that when the shared agent purchases an animal, price is significantly and negatively impacted.  By using a continuous measurement of buyer concentration throughout the sale, it is shown that an increase in buyer concentration has a depressing effect on price.  The results also reveal that it is necessary to measure buyer concentration at the agent, not the principal, level.  Finally, when the dominant buyer purchases successive animals, there is an additional, compounding negative effect on price.  Given the unique set of data used in this study, an investigation into the issues surrounding shared agency, dominance, and market power was possible.  These data reveal that a shared agent has a detrimental influence on the price received by producers.

 

 

Desiree Olson (2004): SOCIO-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF WYOMING NONPROFIT BOARD MEMBERS

Thesis Committee:

Roger Coupal (Co-Chair)

David Taylor (Co-Chair)

Karen Williams

 

Abstract:

The past decade has seen a substantial increase in 501(c)(3) nonprofit organizations.  This rise means more volunteers, as well as donations, are needed to fulfill the nonprofit organizations missions and goals.  Volunteers are considered to have an explicit price of zero and are not included in labor statistics.  Given this, they are undervalued by government economic policy.  Valuable information on Wyoming nonprofit board members was extracted using the data collected from surveys.  Board members were specifically chosen for this study due to their significant role they play in their organization.  The data obtained will be used in this study to calculate the value of board member volunteer labor and to construct a board member volunteer labor supply model.  Simple regression analyses and ANOVA tests are  conducted to model board member volunteer labor supply.  Also, results from an in depth analysis of the data collected will be examined as well.

 

 

Erica Mazza (2003): AN ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO HOUSING AFFORDABILITY: A CASE STUDY OF LARAMIE, WYOMING 

Thesis Committee:

James Thompson (Co-Chair)

Roger Coupal (Co-Chair)

Robert McGreggor Cawley

 

Abstract:

An analysis and assessments of impediments to current housing affodability models using Laramie, Wyoming as a case study. A determination of housing affordability in Laramie, Wyoming using standard housing needs assessments, independent affordability modesl, land-use maps, and semi-structured interviews  were conducted with 15 principal stakeholders in Laramie. The needs assessments and independent affordability models were used to determine, through secondary data sources, if Laramie has a housing affordability problem. The land-use maps and interviews were assessed to determine external factors that may be contributing to a popular concept that Laramie is experiencing a housing affordability problem. This action provided a more thorough analysis in determining whether Laramie experiences a housing affordability problem and also illustrates current impediemtns towards housing affordability approaches. 

 

 

Sully Taulealea (2003): ECONOMICS OF VARIABLE RATE (VR) VS. UNIFORM RATE (UR) FERTILIZATION WITH WYOMING SUGAR BEET

Thesis Committee:

Larry Held (Chair)

Edward Bradley

David Koch

Bart Stevens

Fred Gray

 

Abstract:

The sugar beet industry plays a significant role in Wyoming’s agricultural economy. It is considered an important cash crop commodity and is categorized as one of the most valuable farm  commodities in terms of cash receipts besides cattle, hay and wheat. The on-going challenge for beet producers is to maximize and maintain economic return in the face of increasing environmental concern and production cost. Streamlining expenditures through identifying the correct amount of inputs required to maximize profits is one of the ways to avoid apply ing inputs at excessive amounts, thus keeping cost of production at a minimal. In this study a variable rate fertilization study on four study sites was conducted in the Big Horn Basin in 2001 and 2002. The study was implemented on a 2.8 hectare and an 8-12 hectare field on the Powell REC and a co-operating producer’s field in the Big Horn Basin. The objective of the study was to examine the profitabiiity of variable rate fertilzation (VRF) with nitrogent and phosphorus in comparison to a uniform rate (URF)  in sugar beets. A partial budget, on a per ha basis, was carried out to determine the profitability of this VRF study. Individual budgets were designed for each study location to examine the net return of the five treatements implemented. The results were mixed showing an economic advantage to both variable rate fertilization and to uniform rate fertilization. However there is potential benefit to VRF as technology and adoption of precision farming continue to improve and also the evident reduction in nitrogen used. A statistical analysis  was also conducted to examine if there was any statistical difference between yields. 

 

 

James Sedman (2003): ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF HARVEST PRACTICES FOR ALFALFA WITH SUBSTANTIAL INFESTATION OF VERTICILLIUM WILT

Thesis Committee:

Larry Held (Co-Chair)

Chris Bastian (Co-Chair)

Fred Gray

David Koch

 

Abstract:

This thesis examined yield data for alfalfa infected with the disease Verticillium wilt. A net present value analysis was performed to determine the optimal harvest method, which was teh two-cuttings with fall grazing harvest method. The optimal replacement period for the stand witin each harvest method was determined using an annualized net present value approach. Recommendations to alfalfa producers who had this disease were to cut twice instead of three times, graze in the fall if possible, and to replace the stand sooner rather than later. 

 

 

Kaila Beth Wells (2003): USING PRODUCTIVITY AND GIS DATA TO EVALUATE THE IMPLICIT CONTRIBUTION TO THE PRICE OF WYOMING LAND OF ENVIRONMENTAL AMENITY AND AGRICULTURAL PROPERTY ATTRIBUTES

Thesis Committee:

Don McLeod (Chair)

Chris Bastian 

Harold Bergman

 

Abstract:

The western United States has seen an influx of population in the last two decades and increased demands on scenic views and recreation. This is theorized to effect land prices and values. This study is a hedonic price model. It hypothesizes that both agricultural productivity and environmental amenities significantly affect the price of land in Wyoming. A regression including both types of attributes should better explain land price than one with only agricultural productivity measures. The dependent variable is the nominal price per acre of Wyoming land. Independent variables include agricultural productivity measures, scenic view characteristics, recreation opportunities, and distances to places of interest. The study concludes that Wyoming land price per acre is significantly affected by both agricultural and amenity attributes. Irrigated land, improvements on property, distance to town, trend in land prices, amount and productivity of on-parcel fishing, visible prairie, and relative terrain relief visible from the property positively influenced Wyoming price per acre. Total animal units of the property, pasture productivity, visible shrubland, and distance to federal grounds had negative relationships with the price per acre. The environmental amenities of land significantly affect the price of Wyoming land.

 

 

Amy Nagler (2002): INSTITUTIONS AND AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVE ORGANIZATIONS IN WYOMING

Thesis Committee:

Dale Menkhaus (Chair)

Frieda Knobloch

Alan Schroeder

Ed Bradley

 

 

Dannele Peck (2002): OPPORTUNITY COSTS OF SHORT-TERM WATER LEASING IN THE LARAMIE BASIN, WYOMING: IRRIGATION, INSTREAM FLOW, AND WETLAND CONSIDERATIONS

Thesis Committee:

Don Mcleod (Chair)

James Lovvorn

David Taylor

Thomas Thurow

 

Abstract:

Agricultural production in the Laramie Basin of southeast Wyoming is dominated by cow/calf operations. Operators flood irrigate hay fields and pastures from spring to fall to support livestock through the year. Flood irrigation has created many wetlands that rely directly on spring irrigation runoff and indirectly on groundwater table enhancement by irrigation inputs for water. The low profitability of hay production in this high-altitude basin, to date, hs precluded measures to increase irrigation efficiency. However, the Laramie Basin, a subbasin of the North Platte River, which is a tributary of the Platte River, is a proposed water supply source for instream flow enhancement. There is urgent need to increase instream flows in the Platte River to benefit endangered cranes, terns, plovers, and sturgeons. Improving Platte River instream and riverine habitat by increasing irrigation efficiency through subsidies, or retiring irrigated lands through easements would transform Laramie Basin’s agricultural production process and cause a high fraction of the Basin’s wetlands to be lost. 

Short-term water rights leasing, compared to other conservation tools,  is more feasible in the Laramie Basin. Short-term water rights leasing provides water for instream flow by utilizing nonconsecutive, seasonal water contribution by many producers. This avoids large changes in the Laramie Basin’s agricultural economy, and minimizes wetland damage. An  estimte of minimum water costs, and advantages of short-term water rights leasing are discussed. 

 

 

Richard Rumsey (2002): INFERRED PURCHASE OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION EASEMENT COMPENSATION FOR AGRICULTURAL LANDOWNERS IN WYOMING

Thesis Committee:

Don McLeod (Chair)

Chris Bastian

Roger Coupal

John Jackson

 

Abstract:

Social values have been shifting away from city-center living and working to less congested areas outside of the urban corridors. Agricultural and other open spaces are being sought after to provide acreage to build homes and businesses. Owners of these desired lands are being pressured into selling their land to development for housing and business communities throughout the Rocky Mountain West. Purchase of Agricultural Conservation Easement (PACE) programs are working to eliminate some of the pressure felt by landowners. Data has been collected from various governmental and private organizations to infer values for development rights on lands throughout Wyoming. A variety of financial models are used with this data to determine that landowners have financially viable options other than selling their land for development.  

 

 

Amy Bittner (2002): PREFERENCES FOR AGRICULTURAL LAND PRESERVATION IN MOFFAT COUNTY, COLORADO

Thesis Committee:

Don McLeod (Chair)

Roger Coupal

David Taylor

Harold Bergman

 

Abstract:

The face of the Rocky Mountain West is changing. Small communities in Wyoming and Colorado are experiencing growth increases in the rural population. In-migrants are moving to these locales because of the rural amenities that are located in the area such as scenic vistas, recreation opportunities, and wildlife habitat. Rural counties such as Moffat County, Colorado must prepare for these changes. Agricultural areas are often targeted for residential developments in order to supply homes for new residents. Agricultural land provides public goods attributes such as open space, wildlife habitat, recreation, hunting/fishing opportunities and scenic views. A private lands survey was sent to residents and absentee landowers in Moffat County to elicit their preferences for agricultural land preservation. The survey data was analyzed using various statistical models in order to determine respondents’ willingness to establisha conservation easement program and land use ditricts in the county. Policy, action and valuations models were used to measure land use preferences. The analyses showed that respondents were in favor of land use policies in the county. Results also indicated that a potential exists for creating a conservation easement program in Moffat County, Colorado. 

 

 

Lance Gittings (2002): THE EFFECTS OF CONCENTRATION ON AN EXPERIMENTAL PRIVATE NEGOTIATION WITH SPOT DELIVERY MARKET

Thesis Committee:

Dale Menkhaus (Chair)

Owen Phillips

Chris Bastian

 

Abstract:

Experimental private negotiation with spot delivery laboratory markets were used to investigate the impacts of buyer/seller concentration and matching risk on market outcomes including price, quantity traded, buyer/seller earnings and market surplus. Results indicate that increased buyer concentration reduces market price, decreases quantities traded, reduces seller earnings and decreases market surplus compared to the comptetitive norm. Seller concentration increases market price, decreases quantity traded, reduces buyer earnings and decreases market surplus when compared to the base treatment of private negotiation with spot delivery and equal numbers of buyers and sellers. Increasing opportunities for buyers and sellers to match decreased opportunity costs associated with individual matches for sellers, increased market price, increased quantitities traded and improved market surplus relative to the base treatment. 

 

 

Frank Tenkorang (2002): THE IMPACT OF STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT PROGRAM ON FOOD AVAILABILITY IN GHANA

Thesis Committee:

Ed Bradley (Chair)

Dale Menkhaus

Larry Held

Richard Anderson-Sprecher

 

Abstract:

Structural adjustment program (SAP) was introduced in Ghana in 1983. Before then, the economy was charaterized by budget deficits and real effective exchange rate appreciating by 816 percent. Continuous decline of real value of producer price and per capita food availability in 1982 was 30 percent lower than 10 years earlier. The performance of SAP, to a great extent, depended upon its impact on the agricultural sector, and food availability for that matter. The main objective of this study was to determine the impact of the adjustment program on food availability in Ghana. Nerlovian supply response model was used to study the impact ofthe program on domestic food supply. The results were characterized by severe collinearity, and so no further analysis could be done with confidence. However, univariate time-series analysis (ARIMA) with price series indicate the possbility of a temporal impact of SAP on domestic food supply. The import demand analyses show that import price, exchange rate, capacity to import and household expenditures index significantly influence import demand for food. The adjustment program itself is not shown to have a significan impact. IMF and the World Bank have recently accepted Ghana into the HIPC initiative program. The success of the program, however, lies on Ghanians. To encourage food imports to augment domestic supply, policies should be formulated with exchange rate, capacity to import, and household consumption expenditure as some of the relevant policiy variables. Lastly, efforts should be made to avoid conflicting policies such as those common with the SAP policies. 

 

 

Tina Opp (2002): ECONOMICS OF VARIABLE RATE APPLICATION OF SOIL FUMIGATION FOR SUGAR BEET NEMATODE CONTROL

Thesis Committee:

Larry Held (Chair)

Thomas Foulke

David Koch

Fred Gray

 

Abstract:

Sugar beet growers are facing many challenges to maintain profit from sugare beets. In order to find a helpful way to keep beet growers in business, alternative options are being examined. One of these is precision agriculture, which was reviewed in this study. A 39-acre field was grad sampled for sugar beet cyst nematodes, and use dfor variable rate application of soil fumation (Telone II). Telone II was applied in three different rates (7.2 gal/ac, 9.5 gal/ac.) along with a control rate, at 0.0 gal/ac. The objectives were: 1) Examine the effect on yield and net return as a result of applying Telone II at different  specified rates, as opposed to not applying ; 2) Determine economic threshold levles of nematode populations (eggs/cc) justifying application of Telone II at prescribed rates and varying levels of sugar beet and input prices; and 3) Identify economic potential of using variable (site-specific) versus an overall application of the soil fumigation, Telone II, for sugar beet cyst nematode contorl. The resultus fo the first objective showed that 9.5 gal/ac Telone application was the most profitable arate alternative with high nmatode counts. The seconnd objecitve defined the economic thresholds at around 4 to 8 egss/cc. The final objective discussed the margin of benefit of variable rate versus uniform rate, with ranged from - $25 to $209 in no control comparisons. 

 

 

Andrew Haig (2001): ECONOMICS OF INCORPORATING AUSTRIAN WINTER PEAS WITH ALTERNATIVE DRYLAND CROP ROTATIONS IN SOUTHEAST WYOMING

Thesis Committee:

Larry Held (Chair)

Fred Seamon

Ron Delaney

James Krall

 

Abstract:

Incorporating Austrian Winter Pea into dryland cropping systems may improve average long-term profitability for Southeast Wyoming producers. Erratic precipitation and a long-term trend of declining real wheat prices has posed a major challenge to wheat producers in the region. Objectives were to compare alternative dryland rotations, either with or without Austrian Winter Pea, with respect to average long-term profitability; and examine risk-return relationships among the same rotations. Alternatives to the traditional wheat-fallow rotations include wheat-sunflower-fallow, wheat-corn-millet-fallow, and wheat-sunflower-millet-fallow rotations. Incorporating Austrian Winter Pea during the fallow period provides forage for lamb grazing or a green manure crop. Austrian Winter Peas for lamb grazing in the extended rotations appear to provide higher average rates of return to farm land and more protection against risk than the traditional wheat-fallow rotation. 

 

 

Santosh Nair (2000): CUSTOM VERSUS OWNER HARVESTING OF HAY FOR BEEF CATTLE OPERATION

Thesis Committee:

Larry Van Tassell (Chair)

John Hewlett

Michael Smith

 

Abstract:

The main objective of this study was to analyze the profitability of owning versus custom harvesting hay while considering the risk of timeliness when the end purpose of raising the hay is for maintaining a beef cattle operation. Hay harvesting budgets including both variable and fixed costs, were modeled in spreadsheets and the after-tax cost of owning haying equipment and harvesting hay was compared to the cost of having  hay custom harvested. Timeliness of harvest was modeled in @-RISK™ using uniform distribution. A harvest window of 15 and 30 days were used for custom harvesting, while it was assumed that owner harvests the hay in the optimum period.

Harvested hay was valued for steer, pregnant cows second trimester, pregnant cows third trimester, lactating cows, and heifers, through linear programming, with  CP, TDN, and dry matter as the constraints. Results indicated that as variation in timeliness of harvesting decreased between custom and owner harvesting, the range in quality and yield difference also narrowed. Also, it showed that the total digestible nutrient was the limiting factor, category of cattle with low TDN requirement, consumed more meadow hay. Timeliness was shown to be important risk factor when choosing between custom and owner harvesting with beef cattle operations. 

 

 

Barry Munsell (2000): DECISION CASES IN AGRICULTURE

Thesis Committee:

Edward Bradley (Chair)

Larry Van Tassell

John P. Hewlett

Michael A. Smith

 

Abstract:

Decision making in agricultural businesses is a vital aspect of management not well addressed in tradtional educational programs. Through the use of decision cases and the decision case method, instructors may better assist students in learning the life skills needed for decision making under real-world conditions. A decision case documents a real life situation in wich an individual or group of individuals are faced with making a decision. Under the decsion case method, students investigate the case in a discussion-group setting with the instructor acting as a facilitator. Emphasis is placed on developing the student’s self-confidence, leadership, communication and problem-solving abilities. Literature pertaining to what decision cases are, how to write decision case and the decision case method is presented along with three original decision cases.  

 

 

Kitri Falxa (2000): ECONOMICS OF MULTISPECIES GRAZING: DIVERSIFICATION USING SHEEP AND CATTLE

Thesis Committee:

Edward Bradley (Chair)

Larry Held

John P. Hewlett

Melvin L. Riley

 

Thesis Abstract:

This study explores risk management and net returns of producing sheep and cattle under multispecies grazing as opposed to single species production. Many biological studies of multispecies  grazing demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages to land, vegetation, and animal performance, however, few studies have shown economic impacts of multispecies grazing. Four enterprise budgets—cattle only, sheep only, and two different stocking rates of multispecies—were created using multispecies and single species production weights and 20 years of real inflation adjusted prices. The net returns over time were analyzed with mean, standard deviation, and coefficients of variation. The multispecies budget with higher stocking rate and the cattle only diplayed the highest rates of return with the lowest risk.

 

 

Jonathan Gates (2000): MARKET OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE PURCHASE OF CONSERVATION EASEMENTS IN SHERIDAN COUNTY, WYOMING 

Thesis Committee:

Don McLeod (Chair)

Roger Coupal

Harold Bergman

 

Abstract:

Rural open spaces and agicultural lands in the Rocky Mountain West are converting into residential development. Loss of open space creates social and economic impacts to rural communities. Continued growth and open space conversion raises the need for land use controls to protect communities and their way of life. Survey data has been collected for Sheridan County, Wyoming concerning future land use issues and control techniques. The data were analyzed for insight into market potential for purchase of conservation easement (P.A.C.E) programs as a means of land use control. Dichotomous choice logit models are estimated for policy preference and landowner participation. Ordinary least squares is used for modeling willingness to pay. The analyses indicate that market potential exists for P.A.C.E. programs in Sheridan County, Wyoming. 

 

 

Allison Johnston (2000): PRIVATE NEGOTIATION TRADING IN FORWARD, SPOT, AND LINKED DELIVERIES: AN EXPERIMENTAL ECONOMICS APPROACH

Thesis Committee:

Dale Menkhaus (Chair)

Owen Phillips

Edward Bradley

Chris Bastian

All Yakunina

 

Abstract:

Laboratory experimental methods were used to investigate the impacts of decentralized trading forward (production-to-demand), spot (advanced production), and linked (endogenous choice of forward and/or spot) deliveries. This research extends previous research, which investigated the influences of forward, spot, and linked delivery in a centralized trading auction institution. The paucity of information available to agents in decentralized, negotiated, trading, relative to centralized, auction, trading, reduced the number of units traded. Market efficiency decreased in private negotiation trading in forward and spot deliveries, as compared to auction trading in these types of delivery methods. Spot sellers, as a result of advance production, were at a disadvantage relative to buyers. Seller earnings were significantly lower than buyer earnings in the spot private negotiation method of delivery. Auction trading in spot delivery of the linked design was an important source of information for agents in privately negotiated forward trading. 

 

 

Gary May (2000): ECONOMIC COMPARISON OF BEEF CATTLE CALVING DATES AND WINTER FEEDING ALTERNATIVES

Thesis Committee:

Larry Van Tassell (Chair)

Michael Smith

James Waggoner

 

Abstract:

The objectives of this study were to estimate the cost of feeding a cow under five alternative calving month scenarios (February through June), and examine the economic viability of replacing native range forages with basin wildrye. Producers were interviewed to identify important issues associated with shifting calving dates. Mixed integer programming models were constructed for each calving and winter feeding scenario. Objective function values from each model were compared to identify the low feed cost calving month and estimate returns to basin wildrye establishment.  June was the lowest feed cost calving month with a reduction in annual feed costs of $43/cow over February calving. The profitability of establishing basin wildrye was dependent on its projected yield and quality. Yields required for basin wildrye to break-even were approximately 2.6 and 2.3 AUMs/acre for March and May calving scenarios, respectively. Stochastic sensitivity analysis was undertaken by using various probability distributions to represent potential yield, energy, and crude protein levels of available feed stuffs. Establishing basin wildrye for winter grazing was unprofitable in the stochastic sensitivity analysis 72 percent of the time for March calving scenario and 70 percent for May calving scenario.   

 

 

David Leishman (1999): REVEALED COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE AND THE MEASUREMENT OF COMPETITIVENESS FOR AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF WOOL EXPORTERS

Thesis Committee:

Glen Whipple (Chair)

Dale Menkhaus

Edward Bradley

Owen Phillips

 

 

Ruidong Yang (1998): DETERMINING THE LEAST COST METHOD OF OBTAINING MACHINERY

Thesis Committee:

Carl Olson (Chair)

John Hewlett

Wenberg Chai

 

Abstract:

The Cost Theory of production economics was used to analyze an economic machinery system for a given operation in a given time period. The economic machinery size was obtained based on the timeliness requirements and machinery performance capacities. Four methods of acquiring machinery services-ownership, leasing, rental and custom service, were compared, and the least cost method was obtained. 

 

 

James Jennings (1998): ECONOMICS OF INTEGRATING NEMATODE-RESISTANT RADISHES AND LAMB ENTERPRISES WITH SUGARBEET ROTATIONS IN NORTHWEST WYOMING

Thesis Commitee:

Larry Held (Chair)

Larry Van Tassell

Dave Koch

Fred Gray

 

Abstract:

Production of sugarbeets (Beta vulgaris) in the Big Horn basin has been impacted and reduced significantly by the sugarbeet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii). Use of trap crop radishes may help replace the use of expensive nematode pesticides, as well as extend the grazing season of livestock, particularly sheep in the fall. The objectives of this paper are (1) to evaluate the profitability of alternative irrigated cropping rotations (systems) either with or without trap crops, (2) examine the profitability of adding a grazing /wintering lamb feeding enterprise with different cropping rotations either including or excluding trap crops, and (3) identify corresponding risk and profitability tradeoffs associated with different farming systems in the context of growing trap crops and wintering lambs. The research focuses on the Big Horn Basin of Wyoming. Farm systems budgets were generated using Excel worksheets. Individual budgets were designed for each crop enterprise and feeder lamb enterprise. Fifteen years (1982  - 96) of production data were entered into the budgets to obtain sample income that could be expected for a representative 720 acre farm. Profitability and risk measures were calculated from these budgets. In general, rotations including trap crops had better profitability and less risk than the comparable rotations, which excluded trap crops. Rotations including lambs had substantially higher average income and lower risk than rotations, which excluded lambs. 

 

 

Juliet May (1997): MEASURING CONSUMER SURPLUS OF WYOMING SNOWMOBILERS USING THE TRAVEL COST METHOD

Thesis Committee:

David Taylor (Chair)

Christopher Bastian

Glen Whipple

William Gribb

 

Abstract:

The Travel Cost Method was used to estimate consumer surplus values for Wyoming snowmobilers. Consumer surplus values were estimated on a statewide basis and for select locations. Values were reported on both a per day basis and a per trip basis. Agglomerative and iterative clustering procedures were used to stratify the market based upon the snowmobilers’s reasons for taking their trip. Canonical Discriminant Analysis was used to distinguish differences among the market groups. Consumer surplus values were then estimated for each of the market groups. 

 

 

Jody Woirhaye (1997): PREFERENCES AND EXPECTATIONS FOR RESIDENCY, ECONOMIC TRADE-OFFS AND LAND USE CONTROLS: AN ANALYSIS OF SUBLETTE COUNTY, WYOMING

Thesis Committee:

Don McLeod (Chair)

Dale Menkhaus

David Taylor

James Thompson

 

Abstract:

Agricultural land is being converted into rural residences at an unprecendented rate in the Intermountain West. Incfreased populations impact communities both socially and economically . Predictions for continued growth substantiates the need for land use planning to protect community attributes which people value. Survey data  were analyzed for insght on residents opinions concnering the following topics: expectations of future economic performance of extractive industries as compared to amenity industries; indications of why people reside in Sublette County; and preferences for land use controls. Selected land use controls include regulating subdivisions, zoning, purhcase of development rights, and cluster development. Citizen expectations for extractive industry performance concur with census predictions for industry performance. County in-migration appears to be driven by the pursuit of open space and environmental amenities. Dichotomous choice logit models are estimated for pulic and private choice co-variates. Private concerns about land use are the chief determiniants of land use control approval. 

 

 

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Frank Leroy Fleming (1927): MARKETING HONEY 

Thesis Committee: (Un-identified)

Abstract: (none)

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