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Eighteenth-Century Life

Style Guide

Sample Note Citations

Single-Volume Book
1. Eleanor M. Jacobs, The Colonial Controversy in Vermont (Bloomington: Indiana Univ., 1975), 44. 
State abbreviations are not normally given for familiar presses and universities, on the theory that most readers will know where New Haven or Los Angeles is, or can find out readily enough. State names, using Chicago Manual abbreviations (CMS15, 29), are given only for obscure publishers, obscure locations, or where there is some chance for confusion if the state is not given. Similarly, country names are not given.  

2. James Smith, Life on the Isle of Skye, Orkney, and the Hebrides, 1750–1775 (Inverness: Northern Lights), 321.
[Note: Insert a serial comma and a comma before dates in titles, even if the commas are not present on the work’s title page. Also, no ampersands are used in titles, even if they appear on the title page.]

3. Chris Unwin, Robert Arnold, and David Waller, The End of Time (New York: Apollo, 1975), 24–28.
[Note: “New York,” rather than “N.Y.,” is used to designate New York City. Also, only one city is used for the place of the publication, even if two are listed on the title page.]

4. Jacobs, Colonial Controversy, 60.
[Note: The style for a subsequent citation in the endnotes is author, short title, page(s), without “p.” or “pp.”
5. Unwin and Arnold, 31.
[Note: No short title for above citation because it’s cited only once.]

When there is no publisher given, which is often normal for earlier works: (London, 1769).

If you need to cite a note, say on page 143,  the appropriate form is:


The period is used only if this is at the end of a citation; otherwise, it’s 143n, 237nn, 311. If we want to indicate a specific note on that page, the citation is: 15n29   Again, a period only if this is the end of a sentence. For volume plus page plus note, 1:15n29. However, if the pagination is Roman numerals, add a comma, thus: xxiv, n17

Edition and Reprint
6. Lorelie Bingham, Teaching Good Composition to Graduate Students, 2nd edn. (New York: Oxford Univ., 1967), 361.

7. Eleanor M. Jacobs, Colonial Florida, 3rd edn. (Gainesville: Univ. of Florida, 1995), 78.

8. Anne Carson, First Poems (1967; rep. New York: First Light, 2003).

Note that the “rd” in 3rd is not raised; this is done automatically in Word. To turn off the function, go to Tools, then Auto-Correct, then Auto-format as you type, under which you take the check out of the box entitled “Ordinals (1st) with superscript.”

9. Bernard Mandeville, The Fable of the Bees [1714] (London: J. Roberts, 1756).

[When using older books that are not first editions, it is helpful to indicate the date of first pubication in brackets after the title when the annotation appears in a note—date of publication for a title in the text should be in parentheses rather than brackets. Since it is difficult to determine whether early editions are reprints or new typesetting, we will use “rep.” only for works that we know are reprints, which mostly applies to modern works]

Old Books
For books printed in the seventeenth or eighteenth century, give publisher if possible, but if not possible, just give place and date, e.g., (London, 1772). We do not use “n.p.” as an abbreviation for “no publisher.”

Chapter in Edited Collection
10. Andrew R. Walkling, “Politics and the Restoration Masque: The Case of Dido and Aeneas,” in Culture and Society in the Stuart Restoration: Literature, Drama, History, ed. Gerald Maclean (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ., 1995), 58. [ed. after a title means “edited by,” so we do not use “eds.” if there are more than one editor]

If the book does not have pagination, it is appropriate to indicate the signature , and recto or verso, in the following format:

sig.G3r-v  -- Note, no period after r or v for recto or verso (CM 17.136)
fol.61v – since there’s no space after the sig. for signature, let’s have no space after fol.

Carole Fabricant, “Binding and Dressing Nature’s Loose Tresses: The Ideology of Augustan Landscape Design,” Studies in Eighteenth-Century Culture 36, ed. Roseann Runte (1979): 109–35, especially 111.

Jane Austen Sense and Sensibility, ed. Edward Copeland, The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Jane Austen (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ., 2006), 7.

Note the capital letter for The Cambridge Edition. Similarly, The Paul Getty Museum.

11. Julia Kristeva, Tales of Love, trans. Leon S. Roudiez (New York: Columbia University Press, 1987), 5.

Multivolume Work
13. John Dryden, “Prologue” to The Prophetess, vol. 3 of The Works of John Dryden (Berkeley: Univ. of California, 1969), 255. [One volume is cited individually.]

14. Writings of Tom Paine, ed. Moncure Daniel Conway, 4 vols. (New York: G. D. Putnam’s Sons, 1894), 1:61. [The work as a whole is cited.]

Journal Article
13. Robert D. Hume, “The Politics of Opera in Late-Seventeenth-Century London,” Cambridge Opera Journal 10 (1998): 15–43.
[Note: Journal titles are not abbreviated.]

[We prefer authors not use issue numbers, since this is generally unnecessary information and clutters the citations. The rule is: use issue numbers only when the journal paginates each issue of a volume separately, as is the case for Eighteenth-Century Life. For most scholarly journals, however, pagination is continuous throughout each volume, in which case authors should omit issue numbers as well as month or season]

13. DeeAnn DeLuna, “Robinson Crusoe, Virginal Hero of the Commercial North,” Eighteenth-Century Life 28.1 (2004): 69-91. [a journal that has separate pagination for each issue of a volume]

14. William Traversi, “Patriarchal-Maternal Vampire Cross-Dressing Fetishes,” Eighteenth-Century Studies 30 (1997): 312-14. [A journal that has continuous pagination throughout each volume]

For series information, that would be Transactions, n.s., 80.1 (1990): 1-150. Or  2nd ser., 10 (1987): 56-89.

In pagination, if a colon is preceded by an Arabic number, do not put a space between the colon and the Arabic numbers to follow; if the colon is preceded by a parenthesis or bracket, it is appropriate to put a space between the colon and the Arabic numbers to follow (CMS15, 17.169), thus:

Isaiah 12:23-25      Critical Inquiry 18 (1986): 164-85.

Magazine Article

15. Serafina Ambera, “Witches and Wizards in the American Colonies,” New Yorker, June 21, 2003, 35.
[Note: The is dropped before periodicals in the notes per CMS15, 17.194.]

Drop The before modern newspapers, magazines, etc. For eighteenth-century periodicals, retain ‘the’ for the most familiar ones, e.g., The Idler, The Tatler, The Craftsman, The Spectator,The Guardian, The Rambler, The Times, The Gentleman’s Magazine, The Edinburgh Review, The Examiner, since we are using original orthography everywhere else. For less familiar ones, omit ‘the’: Adventurer, Morning Post, Evening Chronicle, Star, Monthly Review, London Magazine, London Chronicle, London Gazette, Post Boy, Public Advertiser, Town and Country Magazine, Critical Review, Morning Herald, Daily Post, London Evening Post, Daily Journal, Monthly Magazine, European Magazine, Whitehall Evening Post, True Briton,  Daily Journal, Weekly Miscellany, Plain Dealer, Daily Gazetteer, Observator, Female Spectator, Plain-Dealer, Champion, Whipping Post. This is what authors have been doing automatically, so we’ll go with it.

This is the format for modern magazines and periodicals; since in the 18th-century it is impossible to distinguish between journals and magazines, treat 18th-century periodical titles like modern periodicals, with volume number, where available, followed by date in parentheses.

For periodicals, if the date is known, the entry is:

The Idler 22 (16 September 1758) – i.e., modern documentation style

If the reference lacks the date, the reference is:

The Idler 22 – i.e., no comma between issue and number, following the modern documentation style above: if there’s auxiliary information, for example, pertaining to a volume in which the essay is reprinted, then it’s:

The Idler 22, 3:145

Newspaper Article
16. Ann Bermingham, “Old Masters of the Hunt,” Times Literary Supplement, 4 August 1989. [Note: Page cite not necessary per CMS15, 17.188.]

17. Joe Thomas, “Eroticism and American Pop Art” (unpublished PhD diss., Univ. of Texas at Austin, 1992), 73.

Paper or Presentation

18. Donald Gilmore, “What Does Hermeneutics Really Mean in Art?” (paper presented at the annual meeting of the College Art Association, Boston, 13 February 1989).

19. Paul Taylor, interview with the author, Springfield, Mass., 24 June 1998.

Letters,  Memoranda, Petitions, Reports, Manuscripts, Web sites (CM 17.76)

Elizabeth Montagu to Edward Montagu, Bath, [31 August 1765], MO 2575. (this is when the date is conjectural—when known, omit brackets)

The word ‘letter’ is not necessary. But if it’s a report or a petition, it should be identified as such. When citing 18th-century petitions, stick to original capitalization, as we do in 18th-century book titles.

For Web sites, we’ll use this, without a date on which it was accessed:


Oxford DNB, online at <>.

This allows us to end the Web site with a period. If we omitted < and >, we’d sometimes have notes that did not have a period at the end, which is inconsistent.

Materials in Special Collections & Classical References:
Here is how we handle such things as British Museum and British Library materials: on first appearance, spell out British Museum, afterwards, abbreviate as follows (CMS15 17.354)

BL, Add. MS 26645    BL, Add. MS 41813, fol.19r.

PRO, CO 137-48

Here is a standard entry for British Museum Catalogue, which is different from just the British Library

BMC, nos. 9863 (8:78), 9869 (8:81-82), and 9872 (8:83-84).

For references to acts of parliament and the like, see CMS 17.336ff. The proper shorthand reference to an Act of Parliament can be:
Calico Act, 7 Geo. I, c. 7 (1721).

Note: the regnal information is sufficiently specific, according to CMS 17.346, but we’re adding the year of the act in parentheses, since people will not be able to figure out regnal years at the drop of a hat.

Classical References

Horace Odes 1.22 (CM 17.250)

Here’s how we do Loeb Classical Library editions:

Dialogues of the Gods, trans. M. D. MacLeod, vol. 7 of Lucian, Loeb Classical Library (Cambridge: Harvard Univ., 1961), 280-91, and 268-75.

Web sites
Include author, title of the page in quotation marks, title of the owner of the site, URL:

Richard Norton, “Homosexuality in Eighteenth-Century England: A Sourcebook,” 

In this case, there is no separate owner of the site.


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