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Student Handbook|English 1010

Integrating Evidence

When you use evidence from outside sources, you need to be attentive to how you work those ideas into your own writing.  No matter what the outside evidence is, the sentences you create should still be complete and comprehensible.  Below are some common approaches to integrating outside evidence; pay special attention to the location of commas, quotation marks, and parenthetical information in these examples. 

Note: the sample quotations below refer to page numbers for a reprinted chapter of Sherry Turkle's "Virtuality and its Discontents," originally published in Life on the Screen, Simon & Schuster, 1995.  


Summary of a passage

In "Virtuality and Its Discontents" Sherry Turkle suggests that real and virtual worlds can coexist.  But she also cautions about the dangers of virtual experience.  She indicates that virtual events can begin to seem more real than reality, that they lack the ability to help people mature, and that virtually-learned empathy lacks the physical aspect of reality (372-373).

Direct block quotation (to quote a passage of more than four lines)

Sherry Turkle argues that virtual experiences have a negative impact on our real lives.  She writes,

Virtuality tends to skew our experience of the real in several ways.  First, it makes denatured and artificial experiences seem reallet's call it the Disneyland effect.  After a brunch on Disneyland's Royal Street, a cappuccino at a restaurant chain called Bonjour Caf at an Anaheim shopping mall may seem real as well. (372)


Direct quotation that is a complete sentence

Sherry Turkle questions the ability of virtual experience to create real empathy for others.  She writes, "Some knowledge is inherently experiential, depending on physical sensations" (373).  By this she means that real understanding of other humans requires the ability to feelwith one's bodywhat those others are experiencing.

Direct quotation of a phrase that is worked into your own sentence

One problem with virtual experiences, says Sherry Turkle, is that it begins to feel "more compelling than the real" (373). 

Paraphrase with a directly quoted phrase

One difference between real and virtual experiences, according to Sherry Turkle, is the inability of simulated events to promote maturation.  A CD-ROM simulation of the Colorado river might be educational, she says, but "it is hard to imagine its marking a transition to adulthood" (372).


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