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1.Project Name: Emergency Program for the Control of Locust Outbreaks in Kazakhstan Country: Kazakhstan
Project Location within Country: Nation-wide Professional Staff Provided by your Company International and National consultants:
No. of Staff: 2
No. of Man-months: 9
Name of Client: FAO UN Approx. Value of Services: US $ 62,500 (the entire project: US $302,000)
Start Date (month/year): May 2000 Completion Date: (month/year): June 2001 (first phase completed in December 2000)
Name of associated firm(s) if any:
Kazakh Institute for Plant Protection (KazNIIZR); 
Kazakh State Agricultural University (KSAU)
No. of Man-months of professional staff provided by associated firm(s): 4
Name of Senior Staff (Director/Co-ordinator, Team Leader) involved and functions performed:

Alexandre Latchininsky, AAAI, FAO International Consultant (IC).Supervised and managed all activities of the project: equipment purchase, training seminars (new equipment and new methods of locust control), translation into Russian of the FAO documents (including the 1999 Report of the Pesticide Referee Group), comprehensive analysis of the 2000 anti-locust campaign, ecotoxicological studies, evaluation of acridicide efficacy, organization of the international Round Table meeting in August 2000 (Ministers and Vice-Ministers of Agriculture of 5 countries - Kazakhstan, Russia, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan present) 
Vladimir Kambulin, AAAI, FAO National Consultant-Acridologist (NC-A).Assisted to the IC in all activities of the project.Developed the draft of the medium- to long-term locust program for Kazakhstan 
Muratbek Childebaev, FAO National Consultant-Ecotoxicologist (NC-E).Developed and carried out the first in Kazakhstan ecotoxicological study on the effects of several acridicides on non-target terrestrial arthropod fauna.

Detailed Narrative Description of Project: [for more details, see Latchininsky A. (2000). Emergency Program for the Control of Locust Outbreaks.Kazakhstan.Consultant's Report. FAO, Astana-Laramie, 240 pp.] 

·Locusts and grasshoppers are serious pests of agriculture in Kazakhstan.The areas and intensity of their infestations increased during recent years due to recurrent droughts, abandonment of >10 million ha of formerly cultivated lands and insufficient control. In 1999, the hopper bands and swarms of the most important species, the Italian locust Calliptamus italicus L. destroyed 220,000 ha of cereal crops with an estimated damage of USD 15 million. 

·Following the official request of the Government of Kazakhstan for emergency assistance in locust management, the FAO allocated funds for a TCP project FAO/TCP/KAZ 0065(E) "Emergency Program for the Control of Locust Outbreaks." 

·The objective of the project was to increase capability of the newly established Department of Plant Protection and Quarantine (DPPQ) of the Ministry of Agriculture (MOA) of Kazakhstan and to prepare a medium- to long-term locust program. Various associated measures were aimed at ensuring sustainability and at taking into account immediate technical needs for the campaign 2000. 

·In 2000, the Government of Kazakhstan allocated 20.1 million USD for anti-locust management.The campaign was directed by the DPPQ working in close collaboration with the Republican State Enterprise (RSE) "Phytosanitariya."According to the official statistics, the nymphal survey was carried out on 34 million ha, and chemical control was implemented by spraying 947,000 liters of 14 insecticides over the area of 8,106,000 ha.A comprehensive analysis of the anti-locust campaign conducted by the MOA is presented in the full report. 

·Collection and processing of the reliable locust information is a cornerstone of any management program. This is particularly relevant to Kazakhstan, in the context of its immense areas of locust habitats. The project inputs allowed the MOA to take the first steps towards standardization of locust information (introduction of special forms) and its conversion to a digital format by supplying a number of GPS units and associated training. 

·The project contributed to further development of ULV applications as the most efficient, economic and environmentally sound strategy of locust control through supplying a number of units of different ULV spraying equipment complemented by practice sessions and demonstrations. 

·During training seminars and field visits, the irregular blanket applications of insecticides were advocated as the most pragmatic and the least hazardous for the environment strategy of chemical locust control. 

·Efficacy of several most frequently used acridicides was evaluated by independent experts contracted through the project.Translation into Russian of the last Pesticide Referee Group report (1999) and other FAO documents contributed to local understanding of the practices of a good insecticide use promoted by the FAO. 

·Large-scale blanket applications of broad-spectrum insecticides represent a serious threat to the environment, in particular, to non-target fauna.The project implemented the first ever ecotoxicological study of acridicide side-effects on non-target terrestrial arthropods in Kazakhstan, thereby starting to build the relevant database. 

·The distribution areas of the Italian locust and the swarm movements across the political boundaries confirm the need to establish a regional early warning system which could be supported by different donors.This and other problems of regional coordination of anti-locust activities were discussed at the Round Table meeting in August attended by over 60 delegates from 5 neighboring countries: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. 

·Representatives of the MOAs of the above-mentioned countries unanimously signed a resolution urgently requesting the FAO to study the possibility of creating a regional Locust Commission for Central Asia. 

Recommendations for medium- and long-term programs of locust management in Kazakhstan are proposed.The ultimate goal of the programs is the transition from a purely curative strategy predominantly based on chemical locust control to the development of a preventative, ecosystem approach to the management of locust populations.

Detailed Description of Actual Services provided by your Company: 


Training and education on new methods of locust control, including the ULV applications was performed 

·In Astana (MOA); 
·During field visits of the International Consultant (4 oblasts); 
·Specialized seminars conducted by the National Consultant-Acridologist (3 oblasts). 

The total number of trainees by the International Consultant (during numerous field visits): >40.
The total number of trainees by the National Consultant-Acridologist (3 seminars): 85. 

2.Capacity building.

During the implementation of the project, the personnel of the MOA, Territorial divisions of the MOA and Republican State Enterprise "Phytosanitariya" were trained in: 

·New methods of locust control (ULV applications),
·New tactics of locust control (irregular blanket treatments), 
·New methods of collecting the locust information (use of GPS), 
·New methods of reporting (use of standardized forms). 

During the Round Table meeting, and due to translations of numerous FAO documents, the MOA and RSE personnel received up-to-date acridological information, including methods of evaluation of insecticide efficacy and environmental impacts.All this contributed to strengthening and sustaining the structures involved in locust management. 


The following equipment was purchased in the framework of the current TCP project and transferred to the MOA: 

·47 knapsack "Agrimondo" motorized ULV sprayers; 
·1 aerial ULV "Micron Sprayers" AU5000 kit for the AN-2 aircraft; 
·1 vehicle-mounted ULV "Micron Sprayers" unit A8115M; 
·4 personal computers with printers (2 for the MOA, 1 for KazNIIZR and 1 for the Central Agricultural Library in Almaty); 
·20 GPS units; 
·sets of protective clothing for pesticide handling; 
·35 mm camera for macrophotography of insects; 


The following contracts were awarded: 

·Kazakh Institute for Plant Protection (KazNIIZR) and Kazakh State Agricultural University (KSAU), for the comparative studies of the efficacy of different acridicides; 
·Mr. Kambulin, National Consultant-Acridologist, AAAI Associate, for the assistance to the IC in implementing the project including: developing proposals regarding medium- to long-term concept of locust management in Kazakhstan, preparing the Round Table meeting, and supervising the follow-up of the project activities after the end of the IC mission, including the editing of the RT materials; 
·Mr. Childebaev, National Consultant-Ecotoxicologist, for the study of the effects of different acridicides on non-target ground arthropods and for the preparation of insect collections (10 boxes) of pest and common acridids and their natural enemies. 

5.Translations of the FAO documents and other materials.

In addition to the above-mentioned, several contracts were awarded for the translations of the FAO documents into Russian, including: 

·Establishment of the Desert Locust Control Committee, Central Region (distributed at the RT meeting); 
·Report of the PRG, 8th Meeting, October 1999 (distributed at the RT meeting); 

Some other FAO documents were translated into Russian by the IC, e.g., the FAO locust survey form. It was also distributed among the participants of the RT meeting. 

Translations from Russian into English: 

·Report of the KSAU (FAO TCP contract). 
·Report of KazNIIZR (FAO TCP contract). 
·All materials of the RT meeting (translated by IC). 

It is planned that two more documents, the Report of the NC-E Mr. Childebaev (Effects of Several Acridicides on Non-target Arthropod Fauna in Central Kazakhstan) and the Medium- to Long-term Concept of Locust Management in Kazakhstan will be translated into English, pending the availability of resources. 

6.Acridicide efficacy. 

Two reports (KSAU and KazNIIZR) on contracts contain the data on operational efficacy of 9 acridicids belonging to all 5 chemical classes currently registered in Kazakhstan: pyrethroids (Kinmix, Buldock, Fury, Karate), phenyl pyrazoles (Adonis), organophosphates (Dursban), chlor-nicotinyls (Confidor) and benzoyl ureas (Nomolt, Dimilin).Large-scale trials were conducted in 8 oblasts: Almaty, Zhambyl, S.-Kazakhstan, E.-Kazakhstan, W.-Kazakhstan, Pavlodar, Aktyubinsk and Akmolinsk.English translations are available. 

7.Ecotoxicological studies. 

Mr. Childebaev, NC-E, conducted a study of non-target effects of 8 acridicides belonging to 4 chemical classes: pyrethroids (Fury, Fastac, Decis-extra, Buldock), organophosphates (Dursban), benzoyl ureas (Dimilin) and phenyl pyrazoles (Adonis) on ground Arthropods.This study is the first in Kazakhstan.It initiated the ecotoxicological database for Central Asia. 


In addition to training performed by the IC and NC-A, Mr. Childebaev (NC-E) is preparing 10 boxes of entomological collections: 5 boxes with pest and common acridids and other 5 boxes with their natural enemies and other beneficial and non-target arthropods.These boxes will be donated to the Territorial Divisions of the MOA in 5 oblasts of Kazakhstan.Due date: March 2001.These collections will augment professional qualities of the MOA personnel and contribute to its capacity building. 


The regional, international aspect of the project was implemented through: 

·Investigation by the IC and NC-A of the publication regarding the Locust invasion from Kazakhstan into China. 
Output: the response was send to the FAO HQ with a copy to the MOA. 

·Mission of the IC to the MOA of Uzbekistan and Russia and to the leading research institutions involved in applied acridology in these countries (UzNIIZR and VIZR). 
Output: the authorities of Uzbekistan and Russia were informed about the RT meeting and the initiatives regarding the creation of the FAO Locust Commission for Central Asia.The countries visited by the IC sent 7 delegates at their own costs in addition to 2 persons per country funded by the FAO. 

·Preparation and realization of the RT meeting attended by representatives of 5 countries (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan). 
Output: creation of a regional forum of locust specialists, exchange of opinions and experiences.Resolution requesting the FAO to study the possibility of the creation of the Central Asian Locust Commission signed by the MOA officials from 5 countries.The materials of the RT meeting allowed synthesis of a vast amount of locust information from the countries of the Central Asia. The Proceedings of the RT meeting are being prepared for publication. 

10.Analysis of locust situation and anti-locust campaign 2000 in Kazakhstan.

The following inputs were used for this analysis: 

·Daily information of the DPPQ of the MOA; 
·Field visits of the International Consultant and National Consultant-Acridologist; 
·Weekly meetings of the Emergency Locust Commission; 
·Published recommendations and other methodical brochures; 
·Interactions with researchers, specialists-acridologists and representatives of private companies. 
·Materials from the press (newspapers, TV). 
Output: accounts of the situation in Central Asia were regularly submitted to the FAO in the IC reports.Information on the subject appeared in three FAO Desert Locust Bulletins. 

11.Medium- to long-term program of locust management. 

The draft of the program (concept) was put together in close collaboration with the NC-A Mr. Kambulin.The document was distributed to each participant and discussed at the RT meeting.

Firmís Name: Association for Applied Acridology International (AAAI)

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