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3. Project Name: Guide to the identification and management of the grasshoppers and locusts of Kazakhstan (in Russian) Country: Kazakhstan 
Project Location within Country: Nation-wide Professional Staff Provided by your Company: Authors and editors of the Guide 
No of Staff:
No of Man-months: 10
Name of Client: University of Wyoming, Agricultural Experiment Station; Aventis Approx. Value of Services: US $ 12,000
Start Date (month/year): June 1999 Completion Date: (month/year): June 2001
Name of associated firm(s) if any:

-Novosibirsk State University, RUSSIA 
-Institute of Zoology, Kazakh Academy of Sciences, KAZAKHSTAN
-Moscow State Pedagogical University, RUSSIA 
-Uzbek Institute for Plant Protection, UZBEKISTAN

No. of Man-months of professional staff provided by associated firm(s): 6
Name of Senior Staff (Director/Co-ordinator, Team Leader) involved and functions performed:

Alexandre Latchininsky (University of Wyoming, AAAI), Project Co-director: Responsible for liaison with Kazakh, Uzbek and Russian associates, editing of the text, and co-authorship of the chapter on pest management. 
Jeffrey Lockwood (University of Wyoming, AAAI), Project Co-director: Responsible for coordination of printing/production and co-authorship of the chapter on pest management. 
Michael Sergeev (Novosibirsk State University, AAAI): Responsible for chapters on the specific composition and ecological distribution of the acridids of Kazakhstan. 
Murat Childebaev (Institute of Zoology, Kazakh Academy of Sciences): Responsible for the identification keys and species descriptions. 
Michael Tchernyakhovsky (Moscow State Pedagogical University): Responsible for the chapter on the egg-pods of Kazakh grasshoppers. 
Vladimir Kambulin (Novartis, AAAI): Responsible for the chapter on spraying equipment.

Detailed Narrative Description of Project:

Rationale and Significance. Kazakhstan, with an area of nearly 3 million km2, is the 9th largest country in the world.About 80% of its territory consists of steppes and semi-deserts, which are similar to Wyoming’s short- and mixed-grass prairies. These lands constitute the most favorable habitats for acridids (Acrididae is the family that encompasses grasshoppers). In Kazakhstan, there are more than 300 species of grasshoppers and locusts (locusts are grasshoppers that form migratory swarms), and more than 100 of them are considered to be injurious to crops and rangeland.Every year the areas infested by these pests exceed several million hectares, and during the outbreaks, the large-scale chemical treatments used to control them are applied on 2 to 4 million hectares.Grasshopper and locust infestations in Kazakhstan are of both chronic and acute economic importance. 

Current State of the Problem.Unfortunately, the acridid fauna of Kazakhstan is still not sufficiently known. The only relevant publication, a comprehensive volume, Acridoidea of the USSR and adjacent countries, by Bei-Bienko and Mishchenko was published almost 50 years ago. A publication covering the Acrididae of Kazakhstan has never been attempted, and color photos of locusts and grasshoppers of this vital region have never been published.At the same time, the expertise is available through both in-country and international sources.However, the deep economic crisis of the transitional period of this young, independent country precludes the production of high quality, scientifically sound publications that are desperately needed for agriculturalists, pest managers, and applied entomologists. 

Current State of the Project. The“Guide to the identification and management of the grasshoppers and locusts of Kazakhstan” aims at making a significant step towards filling the gap of our knowledge of the acridids of Kazakhstan.It will cover about 60 of the most damaging and common species of locusts and grasshoppers. It will contain more than 200 black-and-white illustrations, and 10 color plates with the photos of the most economically and ecologically important species.At present, about 80% of the material needed for the Guide has been developed, and we anticipate printing the final product in the first half of 2001. 

Expected outcome.The Guide will be instrumental to all agriculturalists, plant protection agents, and pest management specialists in Kazakhstan.The National Plant Protection Service, whose mandate includes locust and grasshopper survey and control, will be the main “target” of this publication, together with the agronomists and cattle-breeders from agricultural cooperatives and individual farmers. Because of regional similarities in grasshopper fauna and problems, we expect a keen interest in this publication from the specialists in the adjacent CIS countries. 

Follow-up and Future Cooperation.Kazakhstan’s National Plant Protection Service is extremely interested in monitoring the efficacy of this project.This emerging nation is anxious to explore various models of agricultural development and education.As such, the Guide would function as an “Extension Bulletin”, and assessing its impact on crop protection and pest management will be a high priority.In this regard, we are relying on our Kazakh colleagues.The proposed Guide may initiate a series of the similar Guides issued for other CIS countries (Russia, Uzbekistan, Ukraine, etc.) suffering from locust and grasshopper infestations.Thus it will foster mutually beneficial, sustained relationships with global partners, in addition to increasing the international experience and global expertise within AAAI.

Detailed Description of Actual Services provided by your Company: see previous section.
Firm’s Name: Association for Applied Acridology International (AAAI)

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