Grasshoppers of New Mexico Contents

ABIOTIC FACTOR: Environmental element that does not involve or include living things; e.g. temperature, soil type, rainfall.

ACEPHATE: Chemical common name of the insecticide Orthene.

ACRIDIDAE: Family name for short-horned grasshoppers except lubber grasshoppers.

ACUTE: Pointed, especially when the angle formed is less than 90o.

ADULT: The fully developed mature stage of an animal; for grasshoppers, this is the stage that can reproduce.

AEDEAGUS: The male intromittent organ.

ANAL AREA OF THE WING: Posterior portion of the wing.

ANTENNA (antennae, pl.): A pair of segmented appendages located on the head above the mouth parts; usually sensory in function.  (Fig. 1)

ANTERIOR: Front; in front of.

APEX: At the tip; the uppermost point; at the narrowed or pointed end.

APICAL: of, relating to or situated at the apex.

ARBICOLE: Tree-dwelling.

ARBOREAL: Of, relating to or resembling a tree.

ARTHROPOD: General term for any member of a phylum (Arthropoda) of "jointed foot" invertebrate animals, including insects, mites, spiders, centipedes, millipedes, shrimp, crabs and their allies; these typically have a jointed body and limbs, usually a chitinous shell molted at intervals, a brain dorsal to the digestive system and a series of ventral ganglia or swellings along the nerve cord.

ASCENDING: Sloping upward.

BAIT: Type of pesticide formulation where the toxicant is mixed with a potential food that would ordinarily be attractive for the pest, such as cereal bran or fruit pomace.

BIOTIC FACTOR: Environmental element that involves living organisms, e.g. parasites, predators, pathogens, competitors.

BISINUATE: With the margin having at least two wavy indentations.

CARBARYL: Chemical common name of the insecticide Sevin.

CARINA (carinae, pl.): A ridge or keel.

CAUDAL: Pertaining to the tail or posterior part of an organism.

CELL: With respect to wing structure, a space in the wing membrane partly or completely encircled by veins.

CERCUS (cerci, pl.): One of a pair of peg-like appendages on the end of the grasshopper abdomen. (Fig. 1)

CHITIN: A tough, horny polysaccharide that forms part of the hard outer integument in insects.


CONVERGENT: Coming together.

COSTA: A longitudinal wing vein, usually forming the anterior or leading edge of the wing.

COXA (coxae, pl.): The basal segment of the insect leg.

CRENULATION: Crinkled, having an irregular wavy or serrate outline.

CREPITATION: Production of a crackling sound; certain grasshoppers make this sound by rapidly flexing the hind wings in flight.

CROPLAND PROTECTION PROGRAM: A USDA-APHIS grasshopper control program for the benefit of certain farmlands when economic grasshopper infestations produced on federally managed lands have the potential to invade adjacent private lands. 

DIMORPHISM: Having two forms.

DISCOIDAL VEIN: Vein forming a continuation of the median vein beyond the end of the transverse median vein and extending along the posterior margin of the first discoidal cell.

DISPERSAL: The process or result of organisms spreading from one place to another.

DISTAL: Near or toward the free end of an appendage; that part of a segment or appendage farthest from the body.

DORSAL: Top or uppermost; pertaining to the back or upper side of an organism.

ECONOMIC POPULATION: As defined by USDA-APHIS in terms of grasshoppers, 8 or more grasshoppers per square yard.

ECONOMIC SPECIES: Those species of grasshoppers that, because of feeding habits or numbers, have the potential to damage or destroy crops or rangeland.

EMARGINATION: Notched or indented.

ENSIFORM: Sharp-edged and tapering to a point.

ENTIRE: With a smooth outline; lacking teeth or notches along the outline.

EQUILATERAL: With sides of the same length.

EXCAVATED: Hollowed out.

EXSERTED: Protruding or projecting from the body.

EYEBROW MARKS: Short, arched brown or black marks located just above or just behind the compound eyes on certain grasshopper species. 

FAMILY: In the taxonomic hierarchy, "family" is a sub-division of "order" and includes one or more "genera." Among the animals, family names end in "idae."

FASCIA DORSALIS: A transverse band or broad line that spans both wings.

FASTIGIUM: The anterior dorsal surface of the vertex on a grasshopper's head. (Figures)

FAT BODY: A tissue or collection of cells inside the insect's body that store fats or oils.

FAUNA: Of or relating to animal life or animal species composition.

FEMUR (femora, pl.): Third leg segment, located between the trochanter and tibia.  (Fig. 1)

FILE: A file-like ridge on the under or ventral side of the tegmen or forewing; part of the sound-producing mechanism along with the scraper.

FILIFORM: Thread-like or hair-like, especially an antenna.

FOVEOLA (foveolae, pl.): A pit; a deep depression with well-marked sides.

FRASS: Insect excrement, particularly that which is dry and pellet-like.

FURCULA: Forked structure on supra-anal plate of male grasshopper. (Fig. 58)

GENITAL PLATE: The ventral plate on the tip of the grasshopper's abdomen; the cerci and genital structures are attached to or near this plate.

GENUS: A group of closely related species.  In the taxonomic hierarchy, the genus is below the "family" and above the "species."  The genus is the first word in an organism's scientific name; typically it is capitalized, latinized, and either underlined or italicized.

GLAUCOUS: Sea-green or pale blue-green.

GRAMINICOLE: Grass-dwelling species.

GREGARIOUS: Gathering together, especially in groups composed of one species.

HERBICOLE: Species that dwells in herbaceous vegetation, that is, non-woody vegetation.

HERBIVORE: An organism that consumes plants or plant parts.

HOPPER DOZER: Mechanical device designed to scoop up grasshoppers from crop fields or rangeland.

INCOMPLETE METAMORPHOSIS: A type of development wherein an insect hatches from an egg and acquires adult features and behaviors gradually through a series of molts; typically, there is no inactive, non-feeding pupa in insects with incomplete metamorphosis.

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM): Crop production involving the judicious use of a variety of pest control strategies and techniques including pesticides, biological control, physical/mechanical control, selection of pest-tolerant or pest-resistant crop varieties, and specially timed planting and harvest dates

INTERCALARY VEIN: An extra longitudinal vein that develops from a thickened fold in the wing, more or less midway between two preexisting veins. (Fig. 1)  

LATERAL: Of or pertaining to the side (e.g. the right side or left side).

LONGITUDINAL: Lengthwise along the body or an appendage.

MACULATE: Spotted or marked with figures of any shape.

MALATHION: Chemical common name for the insecticide Malathion.

MANDIBLE (mandibles, pl.): Jaw; one of the paired mouth parts that chews or crushes food.

MEDIAN: In the middle or along the midline of the body.

MEDIOVENTRAL: Along the middle of the underside.

MESOSTERNUM: The sternal or ventral plate on the middle segment of the thorax.

METANOTUM: The dorsal plate of the last (third) segment of the thorax.

METAZONA: The dorsal surface of the prothorax behind the primary sulcus.

MIGRATION: Movement of one or more organisms from one locality to another.

MORPHOLOGY: The science of form or structure.

NON-ECONOMIC SPECIES: Species not likely to damage items, areas or crops of concern because of generally low population densities, restrictions in host or habitat preferences or similar conditions.

NYMPH: That immature stage between the egg and adult of a species with incomplete metamorphosis; generally, nymphs resemble smaller versions of the adult stage and are often found in the same habitat with them.  Nymphs cannot reproduce or fly.

OBSOLETE: Almost or entirely absent; indistinct; not fully developed.

OBTUSE: Not pointed; at an angle greater than a right angle.

OCELLUS (ocelli, pl.): A simple eye on an insect's head. (Fig. 1)

OLIVACEOUS: Olive green.

ORDER: In the taxonomic hierarchy, a subdivision of a class (e.g. Insecta) that includes one or more related families.  The order to which grasshoppers, katydids, crickets and their kin belong is the Orthoptera.

ORTHOPTERA: Order to which grasshoppers, katydids, crickets, Jerusalem crickets and their allies belong.

OVIPOSIT: To lay eggs.

OVIPOSITOR: The egg-laying apparatus of a female insect, particularly those parts that are external.

PARASITE: An animal that lives in or on the tissues of another living animal (the host) at least during part of the parasite's cycle, feeding on the tissues of the host.  Insect parasites typically kill their hosts when the parasites mature and emerge and are thus often referred to as parasitoids.  See "predator."

PATHOGEN: An organism that causes disease in another species.

POIKILOTHERM: Cold-blooded; the body temperatures of these organisms typically rise and fall with changing environmental temperatures.

POSTERIOR: Hind or rear.

PREDATOR: An animal that attacks and feeds on other animals (prey) that are usually smaller and less powerful than itself. The prey is usually killed quickly and entirely or almost entirely eaten; many prey are consumed by the predator during its life.  See "parasite."

PRONOTAL CREST: A crest or fan-shaped structure located on the pronotum (upper part of the first thoracic segment).

PRONOTAL DISK: The central upper surface of the pronoturn.

PRONOTUM: The dorsal or upper plate on the first segment on the thorax.

PROSTERNUM: The ventral plate on the first segment of the thorax.

PROXIMAL: Nearer to the body axis or the base of an appendage.

PROZONA: The anterior part of the prothorax.

ROMALEIDAE: A grasshopper family containing the lubbers; some specialists recognize this family at other ranks.

RUGOSE: Rough or wrinkled.

SCRAPER: A part of the stridulating or sound-making mechanism of certain grasshoppers; the sharpened anal angle on the front wing which is rubbed across the file.

SPECIES: A group of individuals or populations that are similar in structure and physiology and are capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring.  Separate species typically are different in structure and/or physiology from each other and normally do not interbreed.  A species name is the second word of a scientific name and is not capitalized.

SPIRACLE: Breathing pore; external opening of the tracheal system in an insect.

SPORE: A unicellular reproductive or environmentally resistance body produced by certain primitive plants, including pathogenic bacteria and fungi.

SPURIOUS VEIN: A vein-like thickening of the wing membrane between two true veins.

STERNITE: A ventral plate on an abdominal segment.

STRIDULATION: Production of sound by rubbing two structures together.  Crickets and katydids stridulate by rubbing scrapers and files together.  Many grasshoppers stridulate by rubbing their hind legs against abdomen or tegmina.

SUBGENITAL PLATE: A plate-like sternite that underlies the genitalia.

SUBSPECIES: Subdivision of a species, usually a geographic race.  Subspecies usually intergrade with each other and, when opportunities permit, are capable of interbreeding with each other.

SULCUS (sulci, pl.): Shallow furrow where two body plates join.

SUPRA-ANAL PLATE: A triangular sclerite covering the anal cavity.

SWARMING: Movement from one area to another by large numbers of one species of animal, especially grasshoppers.

TARSUS (tarsi, pl.): The leg segment beyond the tibia, consisting of one or more jointed "segments" or subdivisions.

TEGMEN (tegmina, pl.): The hardened or leathery forewing of Orthoptera.

TERRICOLE: A ground-dwelling organism.

THERMOREGULATION: The maintenance or regulation of temperature.

TIBIA (tibiae, pl.): The fourth segment of the insect leg, between the femur and tarsus. (Fig. 1)

TRANSVERSE: Across; at right angles to the longitudinal axis.

TRIQUETROUS: Triangular in section, with three flat sides.

TRILOBATE: With three lobes.

TUBERCLE: A small rounded or knob-like protuberance. 

ULNAR VEIN: The cubitus vein, more or less in the center of the wing.

VALVE: Part of the three pairs of processes that form the sheath and piercing structures of the ovipositor.

VERTEX: The top of the insect head; area between the eyes and anterior to the occipital suture.

WING PAD: One of four externally visible, flap-like structures visible especially on older nymphs of grasshopper species that have wings as adults.

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Grasshoppers of New Mexico Contents