Some of the content on this website requires JavaScript to be enabled in your web browser to function as intended. While the website is still usable without JavaScript, it should be enabled to enjoy the full interactive experience.

Skip to Main Navigation. Each navigation link will open a list of sub navigation links.

Skip to Main Content

Grasshoppers of Wyoming and the West|Renewable Resources

GRASSHOPPERS OF COLORADO

GLOSSARY OF TERMINOLOGY

B C D E F G H I K L M
N O P Q R S T V W Y

A - acre

Al - active ingredient

ABDOMEN - the posterior of the three main body divisions

ABORTIVE - arrested in development; rudimentary

ACRE - 43,560 square feet or 0.4047 hectare

ACTIVE INGREDIENT - the amount of toxicant present in insecticide, usually expressed as % or lb/gal

ACUTE ANGLE - an angle less than 90'; pointed

AEDEAGUS - the intromittent organ of male insects; "penis"

ALPINE - growing or living in high altitudes above timberline

ANAL - pertaining to the last abdominal segment (which bears the anus); the posterior basal part (for example, of the wing)

ANTENNAE - (sing., antenna) a pair of segmented appendages located on the head above the mouthparts and sensory in function

ANTERIOR - front; in front of

APEX - (pl., apices) the end of a structure farthest from its base or point of attachment; "tip" of a structure

APICAL - at the end, tip or outermost part

APPENDAGE - any part, piece or organ attached by a joint to the body or to any other main structure

ARTHROPOD - any member of a large phylum (Arthropoda) of invertebrate animals with jointed legs and a segmented body, such as insects, crustaceans, spiders, centipedes and trilobites

AUDITORY ORGAN - any structure that functions as an ear; in Orthoptera, specialized structures covered by a tense membrane on the anterior tibiae or the base of the abdomen 

BASAL - at the base; near the point of attachment (of an appendage)

BILOBATE - divided into two lobes

BOREAL - of or pertaining to the northern zone of plant and animal life lying just below the tundra

CALCAREOUS - of, like or containing calcium carbonate, calcium or lime

CANNIBALISTIC - feeding on other individuals of the same species

CARINA - (pl., carinae) an elevated ridge or keel, not necessarily high or acute

CERCUS - (pi., cerci) an appendage (generally paired) near the end of the abdomen, often segmented but sometimes not and often important in insect classification

CLEFT - split; partly divided longitudinally

CLUBBED - thickening gradually toward the tip

CLYPEUS -the lower portion of the face between the front and the labrum

CONICAL - cylindrical, with a flat base, tapering to a point

CONCAVE-curving inward, like the inside surface of a sphere

CONVEX - curving out, like the outside surface of a sphere

COSTAL FIELD - that region of the tegmina adjacent to the anterior margin or costa

COSTAL MARGIN - the anterior margin of a wing

COSTAL VEIN - a longitudinal wing vein, usually forming the anterior margin of the wing

COXA - (pl., coxae) the basal segment of the leg

CRENULATE - having the margin cut into rounded scallops

CROP - the dilated posterior portion of the foregut, which serves to receive and hold food prior to its slower passage through the rest of the digestive tract

CUCURBITS - any plant of the gourd family (Cucurbitaceae) e.g., squash, melon, pumpkin, etc.

CYLINDRICAL - in the form of a cylinder or tube 

DIAPAUSE - a delay in development which facilitates survival during unfavorable times; roughly equivalent to hibernation

DIMORPHISM - the occurrence of two types of individuals in the same species, distinct in coloring, size, etc. Sexual dimorphism is differences between sexes of the same species

DISC - somwhat flat circular part or area; central upper portion or central portion, usually of wing

DISTAL - toward the end farthest from the point of attachment on the body; near or toward the free end or apex of any appendage

DORSAL - of or belonging to the upper surface

DORSUM - the back, or top side

ECLOSION - hatching of eggs

EGG BED - sites where large numbers of egg pods have been deposited; often characterized by dry sandy soil

EGG POD - an egg capsule

EPIZOOTIC - epidemic or outbreak of disease

EQUIDISTANT - equally distant from any two or more points 

FECUNDITY - number of eggs or offspring produced; an expression of reproductive potential

FEMUR - (pl., femora) thigh; usually the stoutest segment of the insect leg, connected to the body by a coxa and trochanter and bearing a tibia at the distal end

FORB - a broad-leaved flowering plant as distinguished from the grasses, sedges, etc.

FORBIVOROUS - forb-eating

FOVEOLAE - (sing., foveola) small depressions or pits located below the vertex

FRONT - the upper anterior portion of the head, below the vertex and above the clypeus, including the area between the antennae bases

FRONTAL COSTA - broad prominent vertical ridge on front of head between compound eyes and running down toward clypeal margin, often bearing median ocellus

FURCULA - (pl., furculae) a forked process; paired structure at the base of the supraanal plate of some grasshoppers, often distinctive in size and shape and then useful in classification of closely related species

G - gram

GENITALIA - the sexual organs and associated structures

GRAM - 0.03527 oz.

GRAMINIVOROUS - grass-eating

GRASS - any of a family (Gramineae) of plants with long, narrow leaves, jointed stems, flowers in spikelets and seed-like fruit, as wheat, rye, barley, oats, etc.

GREGARIOUS - living in groups 

HA - hectare

HABITAT - the region or environment that an organism naturally inhabits

HECTARE - 2.471 acres

INCISION - any cut into a margin or through a surface

INSTAR - developmental stage between molts e.g., the first instar is the stage between the egg and the first molt

INTEGUMENT - the outer covering or cuticle of the insect body

INTER - prefix meaning among or between

INTERCALARY VEIN - short vein sometimes present on tegmen of grasshoppers, between median and cubitus veins

INVERTEBRATE - an animal without a backbone

KEEL - an elevated ridge or carina

KG - kilogram

KILOGRAM - 1000 grams or 2.2046 lbs.

KNEE - the point of junction of the femur and the tibia 

LABRUM - upper lip

LATERAL - relating, pertaining, or attached, to the side

LATERAL CARINA - (pl., carinae) in grasshoppers, carinae or ridges on pronotum extending along each lateral margin of the dorsum

LATERAL LOBES - side portions of pronotum which cover sides of prothorax

LB -pound

LONGITUDINAL - lengthwise of the body or of an appendage; in the direction of the long axis

MARGINAL FIELD - the anterior area of a wing or tegmen

MARL - a mixture of clay, sand, and limestone in varying proportions that is soft and crumbly

MEDI - prefix meaning middle

MEDIAN - in or at the middle; of or pertaining to the middle

MEDIAN CARINA - any keel or ridge set medially on a part of an insect; of the head, a ridge in center of vertex; of the pronotum, a ridge along the middle

MESOSTERNUM - bottom or ventral portion of the mesothorax

METAMORPHOSIS - a change in form during development

METASTERNUM - bottom or ventral portion of metathorax

METAZONA - portion of the pronotum behind principal sulcus

METER - 3.2808 linear ft.; a square meter is 1.196 sq. yd.

MOLT - the process of shedding the integument

MONOPHAGOUS - feeding upon only one kind of food; this is usually interpreted to indicate feeding on one species of plant

NOCTURNAL - active at night

NOTCH - (pl., notches) a convave or V-shaped cut or incision in an edge or across a surface

NYMPH - a young stage of insects with incomplete metamorphosis; e.g., an immature grasshopper

OBLIQUE - slanting; any direction between perpendicular and horizontal

OBTUSE ANGLE - an angle greater than 90' and less than 180'; not pointed

OCELLUS - (pl., ocelli) a simple eye

OLIGOPHAGOUS - feeding upon a limited variety of food; feeding upon only a few species of plants, usually within a single family

OMNIVOROUS - eating any sort of food, especially both animal and vegetable food

OPAQUE - not letting light pass through; not transparent or translucent

ORTHOPTERA - an ordinal group of insects that includes grasshoppers, cockroaches, crickets, katydids, praying mantids and others

OUNCE - 28.3495 grams

OVIPOSITOR - external egg laying apparatus of female insects

OZ - ounce

PHYLUM - (pi., phyla) any of the broad, principal divisions of the animal kingdom

POLYPHAGOUS - eating many kinds of food, usually plant species from several families

POSTERIOR - hind or rear

POUND - 16 oz. or 453.59 grams

PRONOTUM - shield-like cover of the prothorax

PROSTERNUM - bottom portion of prothorax; forebreast

PROXIMAL - nearer to the body, or to the base of an appendage

PROZONA - portion of the pronotum in front of the principal sulcus

PUNCTATE - with impressed dots or punctures

QUADRATE - square or nearly square; rectangular

QUADRILATERAL - a four-sided area

RADIATE VEINS - the longitudinal veins spreading fan-like in the anal field of the hind wings

RIGHT ANGLE - an angle of 90'; an angle made by the meeting of two straight lines perpendicular to each other 

SEDGE - any of a family (Cyperaceae) of grass-like plants often found on wet ground or in water, having usually triangular, solid stems, three rows of narrow, pointed leaves and minute flowers borne in spikelets

SPATULATE - spoon-shaped; broad and with a depression apically, and narrowed basally

SPECIES - groups of actually (or potentially) interbreeding natural populations which are reproductively isolated from other such groups

SPINE - a thorn-like outgrowth of the integument, usually associated with the leg segments

SPUR - of a leg segment: a movable "spine," usually larger than most spines and located at the apex of the segment; of wing: dark marking running toward base from band, near front of wing

SPURIOUS VEIN - certain folds or thickenings in the wing surface which resemble veins so nearly as to be readily mistaken for them

STRIDULATE - to make a sound by rubbing two structures or surfaces together

SUBAPICAL - near the apex

SUBGENITAL PLATE - a plate covering the genital opening from beneath, often scoop-shaped

SUBSPECIES - a geographically defined aggregate of local populations which differs from other such subdivisions of the species

SULCUS - (pl., sulci) a groove or furrow

SUPRAANAL PLATE - a more or less triangular-shaped plate over the anus

SYMMETRICAL - having the two halves shaped as mirror images of each other

TARSUS - (pi., tarsi) the foot; the jointed appendage attached at the apex of the tibia, bearing the claws

TEGMEN - (pl., tegmina) the thickened or leathery front wing of an orthopteran

THORAX - the body region behind the head, which bears the legs and wings

TIBIA - (pi., tibiae) the fourth segment of the leg, between the femur and tarsus

TRANSVERSE - broader than long; running across

TROCHANTER - the second segment of the leg, between the coxa and femur

TRUNCATE - cut squarely across; shortened

TUBERCLE - a small knob-like or rounded protuberance

VENATION - the complete system of veins of a wing

VENTRAL - pertaining to the undersurface

VERTEX - the top of the head, including the region between the eyes

VERTICAL - perpendicular, or at a right angle, to the plane of the horizon; upright; straight up and down

WING DISC - the central area of a wing

WING PADS - the undeveloped wings of nymphs

YARD - 3 linear ft. or 0.9144 m; a square yard is 9 sq. ft. or 0.8361 sq. m.

Top of the page
Back to Grasshoppers of Colorado Contents

Share This Page:

Footer Navigation

University of Wyoming Medallion
 
1000 E. University Ave. Laramie, WY 82071 // UW Operators (307) 766-1121 // Contact Us // Download Adobe Reader