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Ruckelshaus Institute|Haub School of Environment and Natural Resources

Terminology Database

A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z

A

ACE

Active Community Environment.

"Increasing Physical Activity Through Community Design: A Guide for Public Health Practitioners," National Center for Bicycling and Walking, May 2002, pages 1 and 5.


Access

1. Freedom of approach or communication; or the means, power, or opportunity of approaching, communicating, or passing to and from. 2. In real property law, the term denotes the right vested in the owner of land which adjoins a road or other highway to go and return from his own land to the highway without obstruction. "Access" to property does not necessarily carry with it possession. See Access, easement of. 3. For purpose of establishing element of access by defendant in copyright infringement action, "access" is ordinarily defined as opportunity to copy.

Black's Law Dictionary -- Abridged Sixth Edition; West Publishing Company; St. Paul; 1991; page 8.


Access, easement of

An easement of access is the right which an abutting owner has of ingress to and egress from his premises, in addition to the public easement in the street.

Black's Law Dictionary -- Abridged Sixth Edition; West Publishing Company; St. Paul; 1991; page 8.


Agricultural district

A legally recognized geographic area formed by one or more landowners and approved by one ormore government agencies, designed to keep land in agriculture. Agricultural districts are created for fixed, renewable terms. Enrollment is voluntary; landowners receive a variety of benefits that may include eligibility for differential assessment, limits on annexation and eminent domain, protection against unreasonable government regulation and private nuisance lawsuits, and eligibility for purchase of agricultural conservation easement programs. Also known as agricultural preserves, agricultural security areas, agricultural preservation districts, agricultural areas, agricultural incentive areas, agricultural development areas and agricultural protection areas.

www.farmlandinfo.org; accessed October 30, 2001.


Agricultural land

Land managed for the science and practice of farming, including the cultivation of the soil and the rearing of livestock.

Fellman, Jerome, Arthur Getis, and Judith Getis. Human Geography - Landscapes of Human Activities, Third Edition. Wm. C. Brown Publishers, Iowa. 1992. Page 499.


Agriculture

The purposeful tending of crops and livestock in order to produce food and fiber.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 600.


Alluvial

Refers to the mud, silt, and sand (alluvium) deposited by rivers and streams. Alluvial plains adjoin many larger rivers; they consist of such renewable deposits that are laid down during floods, creating fertile and productive soils. Alluvial deltas mark the mouths of rivers such as the Mississippi and the Nile.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 600.


American Farmland Trust

American Farmland Trust is a nonprofit membership organization devoted to the protection of the nation’s agricultural resources. AFT works to stop the loss of productive farmland and to promote farming practices that lead to a healthy environment. Programs include public education, technical assistance, and direct farmland protection projects. AFT’s technical assistance staff provide information about farmland protection programs, policies and activities to anyone interested in these issues, including farmers and ranchers; federal, state and local officials; conservation professionals; and concerned citizens. For more information, contact: American Farmland Trust - 1920 N Street N.W., Suite 400 - Washington, DC 20036 - Phone: (202) 659-5170 - Fax: (202) 659-8339
Email: info@farmland.org

www.sonoran.org/library/terms/aft.html; accessed October 30, 2001.


Annexation

The incorporation of land into an existing community that results in a change in the community's boundary. Annexation generally refers to the inclusion of newly incorporated land but can also involve the transfer of land from one municipality to another.

www.farmlandinfo.org/fic/tas/tafs-gloss.html; accessed October 30, 2001.


Appraisal

A systematic method of determining the market value of property.

www.farmlandinfo.org/fic/tas/tafs-gloss.html.


Arable

Literally, cultivable. Land fit for cultivation by one farming method or another.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley nod Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 600.


Area

A term that refers to part of the earth's surface with less specificity than region. For example, "urban area" alludes very generally to a place where urban development has taken place, whereas "urban region" requires certain specific criteria upon which a delimitation is based (e.g., the spatial extent of commuting or the built townscape).

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 601.


Arithmetic density

A country's population, expressed as an average per unit area (square mile or square kilometer), without regard for its distribution or the limits of arable land--see physiological density.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 601.


Assessor

The term "Assessor" is defined as, an officer chosen or appointed to appraise, value, or assess property. A person learned in some particular science or industry, who sits with the judge on the trial of a cause requiring such special knowledge and gives his advice.

Black's Law Dictionary -- Abridged Sixth Edition; West Publishing Company; St. Paul; 1991; page 78.


Association for Biodiversity Information

ABI's staff and member programs work together to develop and provide knowledge about the world's natural diversity. We are an organization that includes hundreds of skilled scientists, information specialists, and other professionals, delivering a unique blend of expertise in two fields--conservation biology and data management. ABI provides the context, analysis, and interpretation that transforms biological data into conservation knowledge. (2)

www.abi.org; accessed October 15, 2001.


B

Bargain sale

The sale of property or an interest in property for less than fair market value. If property is sold to a qualifying public agency or conservation organization, the difference between fair market value and the agreed-upon price can be claimed as a tax-deductible charitable gift for income tax purposes. Bargain sales also are known as conservation sales.

www.farmlandinfo.org/fic/tas/tafs-gloss.html


Best management practices

Information to identify "best in class" environmental business processes and management, which, when implemented, will lead organizations to exceptional environmental performance. Also known as "benchmarking" or "best practices".

http://government.about.com/cs/benchmarking/index.htm; accessed October 30, 2001.


Best use

In eminent domain, the value of property considering its optimum use at a given time and hence the money which should be awarded for such governmental taking; used commonly as "highest and best use".

Black's Law Dictionary -- Abridged Sixth Edition; West Publishing Company; St. Paul; 1991; page 110.


Big game

A working definition for the Wyoming Game and Fish Department includes antelope, bighorn sheep, elk, moose, mule deer, white-tailed deer and rocky mountain goat as the species that are considered "big game". Then we have trophy game which are mountain lion and black bear. "Big Game of North America, Ecology and Management", by The Wildlife Management Institute (1980) lists all of the above plus grizzly bear as big game.

Nordyke, Kirk; Wyoming Game and Fish Department; personal communication; October 16, 2001.


Bike Lane

A portion of the roadway designated for preferential use by bicyclists.

"Increasing Physical Activity Through Community Design: A Guide for Public Health Practitioners," National Center for Bicycling and Walking, May 2002, page 19.


Biodiversity

The term biological diversity has been used to describe "the variety of life forms, the ecological roles they perform, and the genetic diversity they contain."

Wilson, E.O., "Biodiversity," National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1988, page 71.


Biogeography

The study of living systems and their distribution. Biogeography is important to the study of the Earth’s biodiversity because it helps with understanding where animals and plants live, where they don’t, and why.

National Geographic Society, Wild World Glossary , accessed March 3, 2003.


Biology

1. The science that treats of living organisms. 2. All the plants and animals at any one location are interrelated members of a biological community.

1. Webster's New Dictionary And Thesaurus; Russell, Geddes & Grosset, New York, Publishers; 1990; page 67. 2. Wallen, Robert N; Introduction to Physical Geography; Wm. C. Brown Publishers, Iowa; 1992; page 244.


Biophysical environment

1. A classification of environmental factors that most influence the patterns of biodiversity. 2. In practice, these usually include climatic variables, soils or geology, and topography. Also known by other names, such as "enduring features", "environmental domains", "bioenvironments", "environmental units", and "physical environments". These can serve as surrogates of biodiversity where detailed biological inventories have not been completed. 3. These can also serve as a complementary set of conservation elements to accommodate changing climate and land use.

1. Mackey, B. G., H. A. Nix, M. F. Hutchinson, J. P. MacMahon and P.M. Fleming. 1988. Assessing representativeness of places for conservation reservation and heritage listing. Environmental Management 12: 501-514; 2. Kirkpatrick, J.B. and M. J. Brown. 1994. A comparison of direct and environmental domain approaches to planning of forest higher plant communities and species in Tasmania. Conservation Biology 8: 217-224; 3. Hunter, M. L., G. L. Jacobson and T. Webb. 1988. Paleoecology and the coarse-filter approach to maintaining biological diversity. Conservation Biology 2: 375-385.


Biotic

Relating to life; as, the biotic principle.

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary, © 1996, 1998 MICRA, Inc.


Birth rate

The "crude birth rate" is expressed as the annual number of births per 1000 individuals within a given population.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 601.


Brownfield

Abandoned, idled, or under-used industrial and commercial facilities where expansion or redevelopment is complicated by real or perceived environmental contamination.

www.epa.gov/swerosps/bf/index.html; accessed October 17, 2001.


Buffering

The degree to which a site protects a neighboring site from undesirable disturbance vectors.

Kelly, P.A. and J. T. Rotenberry. 1993. Buffer zones for ecological reserves in California: Replacing guesswork with science. In "Interface between Ecology and Land Development in California." J. E. Keeley. Los Angeles, Southern California Academy of Sciences.


C

Cadastral map

Probably among the earliest "permanent" maps were drawings to accompany the cadastre--the official list of property owners and their land holdings. These drawings, called cadastral maps, showed the geographic relationships among land parcels. They are common today, and they record property boundaries much as they did several thousand years ago. The fact that cadastres are used to assess taxes helps explain why cadastral maps have always been with us.

Robinson, Arthur H., Joel L. Morrison, Phillip C. Muehrcke, A. Jon Kimerling, and Stephen C. Guptill. "Elements of Cartography," John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1995, page 16.


Capital Facilities Plan

A strategy by a local government describing how it will develop, maintain, and replace public infrastructure like bridges and parks. Also known as a capital improvement plan or program.

"Getting the Growth You Want (Part One): A citizen's guide to subdivisions and smart growth," by the Montana Smart Growth Coalition, and the Greater Yellowstone Coalition, Montana Smart Growth Coalition , 1st printing, September 2002, Page 30.


Capital Improvement Program (CIP)

The systematic organizing of the capital needs of a governmental unit into a plan for meeting those needs over a set period and within the financial capabilities of that unit. Considered to be a vital part of master planning, the CIP sets forth the essential facilities and service mechanisms necessary to support the future growth and development as well as adequately service existing population. Included would be planning for streets, water and sewer facilities, parks, libraries, museums, police headquarters, city halls, and all other "capital" expenditures to be funded from public tax support or dedicated revenue funds. These expenditures are usually financed by bonds sold by the government unit and repaid over a fixed period from tax sources, primarily the real estate property tax. The CIP should be the basis for the capital improvements portion of each year's adopted municipal budget.

Smith, Herbert H., "The Citizen's Guide to Planning." American Planning Association, Chicago and New York, page 162, 1979.


Carrying capacity

The level of development density or use an environment is able to support without suffering undesirable or irreversible degradation.

Marsh, William M., "Landscape Planning: Environmental Applications." John Wiley and Sons, New York. Page 340. 1983.


Census

The official counting or enumeration of people of a state, nation, district, or other political subdivision. Such contains classified information relating to sex, age, family, social and economic conditions, and public record thereof. The national census has been compiled decennially since 1790, and has increasingly listed a great variety of social and economic data. A primary use of such data is to apportion or reapportion legislative districts.

Black's Law Dictionary -- Abridged Sixth Edition; West Publishing Company; St. Paul; 1991; page 152.


Census blocks

Each census block is a well-defined piece of land bounded by streets, roads, railroad tracks, streams, or other features on the ground. It is the smallest area for which census data will be tabulated. Only selected statistics based on the complete count part of the census are published. No sample data are available at the block level. Block statistics will be tabulated for all urbanized areas, all incorporated places of 10,000 or more population, and any other areas that have contracted with the Bureau to provide block-level data.

Dent, Borden D., "Cartography: Thematic Map Design," William C. Brown Publishers, Dubuque, IA, 1990, pages 415.


Census geography

Of particular interest to the cartographer is the nature of the census geography used in the decennial census. The Census Bureau tabulates data into more than 40 types of geographical areas. Other censuses are also conducted by the Census Bureau, including the Census of Governments, six Economic Censuses, and the Census of Agriculture. The larger the geographic area, the greater the data detail available. For example, less data is available at the census block level than at the census tract level…The boundaries of census geographic areas are determined by a variety of agencies. Governmental authorities provide the Census Bureau with information on the boundaries of such units as states, congressional districts, Indian reservations, election districts, counties, minor civil divisions, incorporated places and city wards…Caution is necessary when dealing with census data taken from decennial censuses. Definitions often change from one census to the next, so they must be checked before using these data sources. Comparability is doubtful in many instances. Furthermore, census geography may likewise change from time to time--urbanized area boundaries, for example, are usually different from one census to the next.

Dent, Borden D., "Cartography: Thematic Map Design," William C. Brown Publishers, Dubuque, IA, 1990, pages 105-107.


Census tract

Census tracts are subdivisions of a Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area and contain an average population of approximately 4,000 but may range in population from 2,500 to 8,000. The actual delineation of tracts is carried out by local Census Statistical Areas Committees made up of local data users, with the Bureau providing general guidelines, detailed review, and approval of the plans to maintain an overall uniform standard. Census tracts have been established for all counties within the current 288 Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas and in a number of other highly populated counties that have expressed an interest in the program. There are over 40,000 census tracts. While the basic tenet has been to keep census tract boundaries as stable as possible, some modifications are necessary from time to time if the census tracts are to continue to be useful and usable.

Dent, Borden D., "Cartography: Thematic Map Design," William C. Brown Publishers, Dubuque, IA, 1990, pages 414-415.


Central Business District (CBD)

The downtown heart of a city, the CBD is marked by high land values, a concentration of business and commerce, and the clustering of the tallest buildings.

De Blij, H. J., and Peter O. Muller; "Geography - Regions and Concepts;" John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 601.


CDC

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

"Increasing Physical Activity Through Community Design: A Guide for Public Health Practitioners," National Center for Bicycling and Walking, May 2002, page 1.


CBD

Central Business District.

"Increasing Physical Activity Through Community Design: A Guide for Public Health Practitioners," National Center for Bicycling and Walking, May 2002, page 1.


Capital Facilities Plan

A strategy by a local government describing how it will develop, maintain, and replace public infrastructure like bridges and parks. Also known as a capital improvement plan or program.

"Getting the Growth You Want (Part One): A citizen's guide to subdivisions and smart growth," by the Montana Smart Growth Coalition, and the Greater Yellowstone Coalition, Montana Smart Growth Coalition , 1st printing, September 2002, page 30.


CIP

Capital Improvement Program.

"Increasing Physical Activity Through Community Design: A Guide for Public Health Practitioners," National Center for Bicycling and Walking, May 2002, page 29.

 


CMAQ

Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement.

"Increasing Physical Activity Through Community Design: A Guide for Public Health Practitioners," National Center for Bicycling and Walking, May 2002, page 34.


Census

The official counting or enumeration of people of a state, nation, district, or other political subdivision. Such contains classified information relating to sex, age, family, social and economic conditions, and public record thereof. The national census has been compiled decennially since 1790, and has increasingly listed a great variety of social and economic data. A primary use of such data is to apportion or reapportion legislative districts.

Black's Law Dictionary -- Abridged Sixth Edition; West Publishing Company; St. Paul; 1991; page 152.


Central business district (CBD)

The downtown heart of a city, the CBD is marked by high land values, a concentration of business and commerce, and the clustering of the tallest buildings.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 601.


Centrality

The strength of an urban center in its capacity to attract producers and consumers to its facilities; a city's "reach" into the surrounding region.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 601.


Cities, High-Growth Suburban Centers

In the mid-1980s, a new type of suburb began to emerge that will pose significant challenges to planners. Some planners call them "centers," but there is as yet no common term for high-growth suburbs such as DuPage County, Illinois, and Route 1 near Princeton, New Jersey. The development of the "new" type of suburb began when the traditional suburb--consisting largely of single0-family housing with little multifamily housing and some business development--came to be seen by major businesses as a highly desirable location for office, research or industrial facilities. The second phase of development occurred when enough businesses had relocated to the suburbs to transform them into job generators. High-rise office buildings and sprawling business parks now cluster along major suburban arterial streets and expressways.

So, Frank S., Judith Getzels, editors. "The Practice of Local Government Planning," Second Edition, International City Management Association, 1988, page 8.


Cities, Inner-Ring Suburbs

In many ways the problems of older, inner-ring suburbs mirror those of central cities: because most of the land has been built out, these areas are not the focus of the kind of development interest that is being directed toward "outer-ring" suburbs.

So, Frank S., Judith Getzels, editors. "The Practice of Local Government Planning," Second Edition, International City Management Association, 1988, page 6.


Cities, Older Central

Older central cities, such as Cleveland, Gary, and Newark, are what come to mind when the media refer to "the city." Most of these cities developed during the nineteenth century; their economies were based on smokestack industries; they were the early financial and retail centers; and they housed wave after wave of immigrants during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

So, Frank S., Judith Getzels, editors. "The Practice of Local Government Planning," Second Edition, International City Management Association, 1988, page 3.


Cities, Residential Suburbs

Residential suburbs include those that developed in the late 1940s and early 1950s as well as more recently. Suburban housing is predominantly single-family, with a small proportion of multifamily townhouse developments and low-rise apartment buildings. Residential suburbs generally include some commercial development, such as community and regional shopping centers, and business development along major arterial streets. Some suburbs may also sustain a limited amount of light industry along arterial streets or expressways.

So, Frank S., Judith Getzels, editors. "The Practice of Local Government Planning," Second Edition, International City Management Association, 1988, page 7.


Cities, Resort Towns

The resort community is another planning environment that poses special challenges to planners. Resort communities in rural areas share many of the problems of other growing rural areas: growth in a rural environment often occurs without sufficient governmental oversight. Even when adequate technical planning services are available, rapid growth in a resort area can cause public services to lag behind the pace of development. The fact that resort areas often take root in environmentally fragile areas poses special planning problems. A resort established in a beautiful natural area may find that growth takes its toll on the recreational value--open space, clean air, and a sense of wilderness. A number of problems associated with resort areas are less related to growth than to the seasonal character of the communities.

So, Frank S., Judith Getzels, editors. "The Practice of Local Government Planning," Second Edition, International City Management Association, 1988, pages 10.


Cities, Rural Small Towns

The rural small town is a distinct type of environment for planning. These often-isolated communities serve as the centers for the county or township in an agricultural, resource-based, or other nonmetropolitan economy. They may have as few as 1,000 people; many are in the 2,500-to-5,000 population range. Many such communities have lost population to metropolitan areas; many have declined because of drops in the surrounding agricultural economy. Small towns in poor or declining regions present special problems. Often, they do not have sufficient public funds to provide good public services. The cost of replacing a system of private wells and septic tanks with a modern water or sewerage system may be more than a small community can afford, and maintenance and replacement costs for public facilities can be quite high. Providing modern medical services is also a special problem for small communities.

So, Frank S., Judith Getzels, editors. "The Practice of Local Government Planning," Second Edition, International City Management Association, 1988, pages 8-9.


Cities, Sun Belt

Sun Belt cities may be as old as cities in the North and East, but they are developing rapidly. Pleasant climates, coupled with a general shift of economic activity to the South and West, have created high rates of growth in cities such as Atlanta, Houston, Dallas, Phoenix, and Los Angeles. Suburbs near these cities are also high-growth areas.

So, Frank S., Judith Getzels, editors. "The Practice of Local Government Planning," Second Edition, International City Management Association, 1988, page 5.


Citizen Action Group (CAG)

A requirement for formalized citizen participation in the determination of where and how Community Development block grants will be spent. Since the inception of the requirement to show citizen involvement in community planning and action in the Federal Housing Act of 1954, the federal government has continued to increase its pressure for representative citizen involvement in policy determination in the use of aid money. Members of CAG's are usually appointed by the mayor, although in some instances election by districts may be used. In all cases, the membership is required to be representative of all geographic, economic, and ethnic groups.

Smith, Herbert H. The Citizen's Guide to Planning. American Planning Association, Chicago, 1979, page 160.


Civic art

Term current ca.1910-1930, used to describe a body of knowledge combining art and technique, dedicated to the creation and improvement of the urban fabric in America. Also the title of an encyclopedic, and still relevant, book by Werner Hegemann and Elbert Peets (1922 & 1988).

http://www.dpz.com; access October 16, 2001.


Clustering

The grouping of buildings on a portion of the site in order to preserve open space. Clustering is the equivalent of a transfer of development rights within a single site. As a smaller lot has a lesser market value than a large lot, the value differential is usually equalized by increasing the number of units. Additional motivation occurs as the units at the edges of the cluster usually have long views over open space and therefore retain the value of a larger lot. Also, infrastructure is decreased by the simple expedient of reducing its length. Caution: mere clustering does not constitute a neighborhood, and while it preserves open space, in the absence of mixed use, it produces sprawl.

http://www.dpz.com; access October 16, 2001.


Cluster Development (Density Control Development)

A design technique permitted by many zoning ordinances that allows clustering of residential units on a smaller land parcel for each unit than specified as the minimum lot size for an individual unit. The controlling factor is that the normal average density for the zone must be maintained. If the zoning permits three units to the acre but requires a minimum lot 12,000 square feet, a developer's plan could be approved in which the units are "clustered" on individual parcels of only 6,000 square feet provided the density of three per acre is maintained. The remaining land is utilized for common open space or public use. the technique encourages innovative design and planning, saves development costs for the investor, and provides green areas and open space in common ownership for the residents. Some more sophisticated ordinances also use this same principle in planning for commercial and industrial development.

Smith, Herbert H. The Citizen's Guide to Planning. American Planning Association, Chicago, 1979, page 162.


Common property right

A common property right is nonexclusive; anyone is free to use the natural resource. Another term used to describe common property is "open access."

Hartwick, John M., and Nancy D. Olewiler. "The Economics of Natural Resource Use," page 8. Harper and Row Publishers, New York, 1986.


Community

1. A sustainable human habitat which is complete and compact. Its smallest manifestation is technically defined as a Neighborhood. 2. Neighborhood; vicinity; synonymous with locality. People who reside in a locality in more or less proximity. A society or body of people living in the same place, under the same laws and regulations, who have common rights, privileges, or interests. It connotes a congeries of common interests arising from associations -- social, business, religious, governmental, scholastic, recreational.

1. http://www.dpz.com; accessed October 16, 2001. 2. Black's Law Dictionary -- Abridged Sixth Edition; West Publishing Company; St. Paul; 1991; page 192.


Community services

Community services include such things as schools, streets, emergency response, water and sewer systems.

David “Tex” Taylor, Roger Coupal and Don McLeod, Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Wyoming, 2001.


Community services, cost of

Although agricultural land provides more revenue to counties than it demands in services, residential growth actually costs more than it provides in revenue. Taxpayers are often unaware that their tax burdens include the costs of sprawl; growth requires additional spending for necessities like emergency services, schools, streets, and water and sewer systems. The primary beneficiaries of these expenses are those who move into expanding sprawl zones, while residents of denser neighborhoods share equally in the costs. Although such subsidies are probably not a direct cause of sprawl, they do artificially lower the costs of moving to the suburbs. In turn, such expenditures divert funding from urban projects and inner city neighborhood amenities. Growth tools that limit public funding for new development, thereby forcing development to pay for itself are often effective for controlling sprawl. In addition to infrastructure costs, communities also spend tremendous amounts of money to attract industry and businesses to their areas, often accompanied by tax incentives for those that choose to locate there. Such business relocations contribute greatly to sprawl and the accompanying community expenditures drain funds that could otherwise be used for land use planning and urban redevelopment.

David “Tex” Taylor, Roger Coupal and Don McLeod, Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Wyoming, 2001.


Community Stewardship Organization

A Community Stewardship Organization (CSO) is a development initiative that brings together diverse interests to promote community-based conservation and enhance community life. These initiatives typically are provided with dedicated funding to carry out a variety of purposes within and beyond the developments that provide funding. A CSO is just one approach to integrating community stewardship in land development. What makes CSOs unique is their focus on stewardship after the development is completed and the developer is gone.

http://www.sonoran.org/library/terms/Cso.html; accessed October 30, 2001.


Comprehensive plan

A regional, county or municipal document that contains a vision of how the community will grow and change and a set of plans and policies to guide land use decisions. Comprehensive plans also are known as general plans and master plans.

American Farmland Trust, Farmland Information Center, Fact Sheet, Glossary, September, 1998, http://www.farmlandinfo.org/fic/tas/tafs-gloss.html

 
Concentric zone model

A geographical model of the American central city that suggests the existence of five concentric rings arranged around a common center. Ring 1 is the central business district; ring 2 is the zone of transition; ring 3 is the zone of independent workingmen's homes; zone 4 is the zone of better residences; and zone 5 is the commuter's zone.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 602.


Connectivity

A measure of how connected or spatially continuous a corridor, network, or matrix is (structural connectivity). The fewer gaps, the higher the connectivity. Functional or behavioral connectivity refers to how connected an area is for a process, such as an animal moving through different types of landscape elements.

Forman, R. T. T. 1995. Land mosaics: The ecology of landscapes and regions. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.


Conserve

To save and protect from loss or damage.

Black's Law Dictionary -- Abridged Sixth Edition; West Publishing Company; St. Paul; 1991; page 210.


Conservation

1: an occurrence of improvement by virtue of preventing loss or injury or other change [syn: preservation] 2: the preservation and careful management of the environment and of natural resources [syn: conservancy, conserving] 3: (physics) the maintenance of a certain quantities unchanged during chemical reactions or physical transformations [syn: conservation law].

WordNet ® 1.6, © 1997 Princeton University.


Conservation biology

Conservation biology is a synthetic discipline that focuses on the application of biological principles to the preservation of biodiversity; it represents a fusion of relevant ideas from ecology, genetics, biogeography, behavior, reproductive biology, and a number of applied disciplines such as wildlife management and forestry.

Brussard, P.F. 1991. The role of ecology in biological conservation. Ecol. Applic. 1:6-12.


Conservation district board

An elected body that oversees water rights, irrigation ditches, and agricultural uses of surface waters for a local area.

"Getting the Growth You Want (Part One): A citizen's guide to subdivisions and smart growth," by the Montana Smart Growth Coalition, and the Greater Yellowstone Coalition, Montana Smart Growth Coalition , 1st printing, September 2002, page 30.


Contagious diffusion

The distance-controlled spreading of an idea, innovation, or some other item through a local population by contact from person to person--analogous to the communication of a contagious illness.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 602.


Contiguous

A word of some importance to geographers that means, literally, to be in contact with, adjoining, or adjacent. Sometimes we hear the continental (conterminous) United States minus Alaska referred to as contiguous. Alaska is not contiguous to these "lower 48" states because Canada lies in between; neither is Hawaii, separated by over 2000 miles of ocean.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 602.


Conurbation

General term used to identify large multi-metropolitan complexes formed by the coalescence of two or more major urban areas. The Boston-Washington "Megalopolis" along the U.S. northeastern seaboard is an outstanding example.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 602.


Council of Governments (COG)

Designates council of governments. These are voluntary organizations of local governments banding together to work on common regional problems. Membership in a COG is comprised of elected officials appointed by governing bodies of the individual governmental units. There is usually an executive director and a professional staff. Originally started as an alternative to formalized metropolitan government and a means of cooperative regional planning in such matters as land use, transportation, air quality control, and delivery of services, COG's have become clearing house organizations for federally aided programs (in effect, subsidiary branches of some of the federal departments). While COG's have no enforcement powers, their position in the allocation and distribution of federal aid has given them an influential role in many geographical areas.

Smith, Herbert H. The Citizen's Guide to Planning. American Planning Association, Chicago, 1979, page 163.


Core area

In geography, a term with several connotations. "Core" refers to the center, heart, or focus. The core area of a "nation-state" is constituted by the national heartland--the largest population cluster, the most productive region, the area with greatest "centrality" and "accessibility", probably containing the capital city as well.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 602.


Core-periphery relationships

The contrasting spatial characteristics of, and linkages between, the "have" (core) and "have-not" (periphery) components of a national or regional system.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 602.


Corridor

In general, refers to a spatial entity in which human activity is organized in a linear manner, as along a major transport route or in a valley confined by highlands. Specific meaning in politico-geographical context is a land extension that connects an otherwise landlocked state to the ocean. History has seen several such corridors come and go. Poland once had a corridor (it now has a lengthy coastline); Bolivia lost a corridor to the Pacific Ocean between Peru and Chile.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 602.


Cost benefit analysis (CBA)

The fundamental role of CBA is to establish principles by which the costs and benefits of any public program are measured. Many of the components of costs and benefits are not exchanged in markets and thus have no well-defined prices. In addition, many markets contain distortions--taxes, subsidies, quotas, monopoly, monopsony--that make the prices misrepresentative of the resource-scarcity or shadow price of the commodities exchanged.

Hartwick, John M., and Nancy D. Olewiler. "The Economics of Natural Resource Use," page 426. Harper and Row Publishers, New York, 1986.


Cost of community services

Although agricultural land provides more revenue to counties than it demands in services, residential growth actually costs more than it provides in revenue. Taxpayers are often unaware that their tax burdens include the costs of sprawl; growth requires additional spending for necessities like emergency services, schools, streets, and water and sewer systems. The primary beneficiaries of these expenses are those who move into expanding sprawl zones, while residents of denser neighborhoods share equally in the costs. Although such subsidies are probably not a direct cause of sprawl, they do artificially lower the costs of moving to the suburbs. In turn, such expenditures divert funding from urban projects and inner city neighborhood amenities. Growth tools that limit public funding for new development, thereby forcing development to pay for itself are often effective for controlling sprawl. In addition to infrastructure costs, communities also spend tremendous amounts of money to attract industry and businesses to their areas, often accompanied by tax incentives for those that choose to locate there. Such business relocations contribute greatly to sprawl and the accompanying community expenditures drain funds that could otherwise be used for land use planning and urban redevelopment.

David “Tex” Taylor, Roger Coupal and Don McLeod, Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Wyoming, 2001.


Cost-of-services study (COSS)

A study of what it costs the government to deliver public services (like road maintenance and police) to a certain area. Usually, these studies compare the taxes generated by development in the area with the costs of the development to the public. Also known as cost-of-community services study (COCS).

"Getting the Growth You Want (Part One): A citizen's guide to subdivisions and smart growth," by the Montana Smart Growth Coalition, and the Greater Yellowstone Coalition, Montana Smart Growth Coalition, 1st printing, September 2002, page 30.


County

The largest territorial division for local government in state. Its powers and importance vary from state to state, and as well within the given state. In certain New England states, it exists mainly for judicial administration. In Louisiana, the equivalent unit is called a parish. Counties are held in some jurisdictions to be municipal corporations, and are sometimes said to be involuntary municipal corporations. Other cases, seeking to distinguish between the two, hold that counties are agencies or political subdivisions of the state for governmental purposes, and not, like municipal corporations, incorporations of the inhabitants of specified regions for purposes of local government. Counties are also said to be merely quasi corporations.

Black's Law Dictionary -- Abridged Sixth Edition; West Publishing Company; St. Paul; 1991; page 245.


Crosswalk

Marked or unmarked area of an intersection where pedestrians cross, or a marked roadway crossing mid-block. Pedestrians have special rights at crosswalks.

"Increasing Physical Activity Through Community Design: A Guide for Public Health Practitioners," National Center for Bicycling and Walking, May 2002, page 17.


Cultural diffusion

The process of spreading and adoption of a cultural element, from its place of origin across a wider region.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 602.


Cultural ecology

The multiple interactions and relationships between a culture and its natural environment.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 602.


Cultural landscape

The forms and artifacts sequentially placed on the physical landscape by the activities of various human occupants. By this progressive i9mprinting of the human presence, the physical landscape is modified into the cultural landscape, forming an interacting unity between the two.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 602.


Cultural pluralism

A society in which two or more population groups, each practicing its own culture, live adjacent to one another without mixing inside a single state.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 602.


Cultural resource

Cultural Resource Management or CRM archaeology is generally state or federally funded archaeological research, completed because a particular parcel of privately owned property is to be purchased by the state for use in a road, bridge, or other public works project. For example, if a new interstate highway is set to be built using federal funding, an archaeological assessment of the area to be disturbed must be performed prior to construction. This assessment, resulting in a technical report similar to and sometimes part and parcel of an environmental impact statement, must identify and evaluate all cultural resources, historic and prehistoric, likely to be disturbed by the project. CRM archaeology is usually broken into three phases or stages of operation, including: I. Archaeological Testing (or Phase I) – the project goal is to find and describe the archaeological sites within a given area; II. Testing and Evaluation (Phase II) – a small percentage of a specific site is subjected to testing, to enable a better understanding of the site and determine if it is of sufficient preservation and importance to either protect, avoid, or mitigate; and III. Mitigation or Data Recovery (Phase III) – a site or portions of a site are scheduled to be demolished for one reason or another, and the project goal is to understand as much as is possible before the site is destroyed. These definitions are presently under revision and are certainly not used by everyone in CRM. See The Moss-Bennett Act of 1971.

http://archaeology.miningco.com/blcrm.htm, accessed October 30, 2001.


Cultural Resource Management

Government-sponsored preservation and study of archaeological and historical resources, including archaeological sites, historical buildings. Often used, more specifically, to archaeological and historical work done in advance of government-sponsored projects such as highways and dams.

http://archaeology.about.com/library/glossary/blglossary.htm, access on October 30, 2001.


Culture

1. That complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society. 2. The sum total of the knowledge, attitudes, and habitual behavior patterns shared and transmitted by the members of a particular society. 3. The mass of learned and transmitted motor reactions, habits, techniques, ideas, and values--and the behavior they induce. 4. The man-made part of the environment. 5. A way of life which members of a group learn, live by, and pass on to future generations. 6. The learned patterns of thought and behavior characteristics of a population or society. 7. The acquired knowledge that people use to interpret experience and to generate social behavior. 8. The sum of the morally forceful understandings acquired by learning and shared with the members of the group to which the learner belongs.

1. Edward B. Taylor (1871) 2. Ralph Linton (1940) 3. Alfred L. Kroeber (1948) 4. Melville J. Herskovits (1955) 5. Ann E. Larimore et al. (1963) 6. Marvin Harris (1971) 7. James P. Spradley and David W. McCurdy (1975) 8. Marc J. Swartz and David K. Jordan (1976) as cited in De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 7.


Culture area

A distinct, culturally discrete spatial unit; a region within which certain culture norms prevail.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 603.


Culture complex

A related set of culture traits such as prevailing dress codes, cooking, and eating utensils.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 603.


Culture hearth

Heartland, source area, innovation center; place of origin of a major culture.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 603.


Culture realm

A cluster of regions in which related culture systems prevail. In North America, the United States and Canada form a culture realm, but Mexico belongs to a different one.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 603.


Culture trait

A single element of normal practice in a culture--such as the wearing of a turban.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 603.


Curb Extension

A section of curb that extends into the roadway, which shortens crossing distance and improves pedestrian visibility. Also known as a bulb-out, neckdown, flare or choker.

"Increasing Physical Activity Through Community Design: A Guide for Public Health Practitioners," National Center for Bicycling and Walking, May 2002, page 18.


Curb Radius

The curved edge of the roadway at an intersection.

"Increasing Physical Activity Through Community Design: A Guide for Public Health Practitioners," National Center for Bicycling and Walking, May 2002, page 18.


Cyclical movement

Movement (for example, nomadic migration) that has a closed route repeated annually or seasonally.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 603.


D

DEQ

...Department of Environmental Quality, an agency of state government responsible for maintaining a clean and healthful environment. Among its duties is ensuring that new subdivisions will not hurt water quality or quantity.

"Getting the Growth You Want (Part One): A citizen's guide to subdivisions and smart growth," by the Montana Smart Growth Coalition, and the Greater Yellowstone Coalition, Montana Smart Growth Coalition , 1st printing, September 2002, page 30.


Death rate

The crude death rate is expressed as the annual number of deaths per 1000 individuals within a given population.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 603.


Deed

The deed is a property right which typically gives the holder the power to use the land and to appropriate returns from the land. The deed is exclusive and enforceable. The owner of the land may be able to subdivide the property and sell or gives others a portion.

Hartwick, John M., and Nancy D. Olewiler. "The Economics of Natural Resource Use," page 2. Harper and Row Publishers, New York, 1986.


Deed restrictions A Community Stewardship Organizations like the Rincon Institute relies on deed restrictions to generate a diverse, long-term funding base for a wide range of stewardship activities that will benefit local residents and landowners. For example, as a condition of local approval, the developer, Rocking K Ranch, agreed to impose deed restrictions binding all future homeowners and businesses to financially support the Institute. These provisions include nightly surcharges on hotel rooms, occupancy fees on commercial and retail outlets on site, monthly homeowner fees, and real estate transfer fees that extend to resales.

Enforcing deed restrictions can be difficult over the long term, as they are only enforceable by the prior owner or a third party to the original transaction, such as the owner of abutting property. One way to ensure continued enforcement is to include a third-party entity, like a Community Stewardship Organization, Land Trust, or other corporation, in the transaction. However, these parties can cancel the restrictions at any time by mutual agreement.

Deed restrictions involve a complicated area of law and should only be used with professional legal advice. For landowners seeking to permanently protect their property, Conservation Easements may be a more attractive alternative.

http://www.sonoran.org/library/terms/Deed_rest.Html; accessed October 30, 2001.


Definition

In political geography, the written legal description (in a treaty-like document) of a boundary between two countries or territories -- see delimitation.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 603.


Delimitation

In political geography, the translation of the written terms of a boundary treaty (the definition) into an official cartographic representation.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 603.


Demarcation

In political geography, the actual placing of a political boundary on the landscape by means of barriers, fences, walls, or other markers.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 603.


Demographic transition model

Three-stage model, based on Western Europe's experience, of changes in population growth exhibited by countries undergoing industrialization. High birth rates and death rates are followed by plunging death rates, producing a huge net population gain; this is followed by the convergence of birth and death rates at a low overall level.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 603.


Demographic variables

Births (fertility), deaths (mortality), and migration (population redistribution) are the three basic demographic variables.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 603.


Demography

The interdisciplinary study of population -- especially birth and death rates, growth patterns, longevity, and related characteristics.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 603.


Density of population

The number of people per unit area. Also see "arithmetic density" and "physiological density" measures.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 603.


Density zoning

Type of cluster zoning which regulates open spaces, density of population and use of land. Density zoning requires state enabling legislation. Under this device, the city council determines what percentage of a particular district must be devoted to open space and what percentage may be used for dwelling units. The task of locating in the particular district the housing and open spaces devolves upon the planning commission working in conjunction with the developer. The latter will submit a series of plans and seek approval to go forward at each stage.

Black's Law Dictionary -- Abridged Sixth Edition; West Publishing Company; St. Paul; 1991; page 1114.


Desert

An arid area supporting very sparse vegetation, receiving less than 10 inches (25 centimeters) of precipitation per year. Usually exhibits extremes of heat and cold because the moderating influence of moisture is absent.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 603.


Desertification

The encroachment of desert conditions on moister zones along the desert margins. Here plant cover and soils are threatened by desiccation, in part through overuse by humans and their domestic animals and, possibly, also because of inexorable shifts in the earth's environmental zones.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 603.


Design Speed

A selected speed used to determine the various geometric design features of the roadway.

"Increasing Physical Activity Through Community Design: A Guide for Public Health Practitioners," National Center for Bicycling and Walking , May 2002, page 23.


Developer

A person or company who makes changes to a piece of land or to the structures on it for profit-that is, not just for personal use. This can be Uncle Fred or MegaStores International, Inc.

"Getting the Growth You Want (Part One): A citizen's guide to subdivisions and smart growth," by the Montana Smart Growth Coalition, and the Greater Yellowstone Coalition, Montana Smart Growth Coalition , 1st printing, September 2002, page 30.


Development

The economic, social, and institutional growth of states.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 603.


Development density

A measure of the intensity of development or land use; defined on the basis of area covered by impervious surface, population density, or building floor area coverage, for example.

Marsh, William M., "Landscape Planning: Environmental Applications." John Wiley and Sons, New York. Page 341. 1983.


Devolution

In political geography, the disintegration of a nation-state as the result of emerging or reviving regionalism.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 603.


Diffusion

The spatial spreading or dissemination of a culture element (such as a technological innovation) or some other phenomenon (e.g., a disease outbreak). See also contagious, expansion, hierarchical, and relocation diffusion.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 603.


Dispersed settlement

In contrast to agglomerated or nucleated settlement, dispersed settlement is characterized by the wide spacing of individual homesteads. This lower-density pattern is characteristic of rural North America.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 603.


Distance decay

The various degenerative effects of distance on human spatial structures. The degree of spatial interaction diminishes as distance increases; therefore, people and activities try to arrange themselves in geographic space to minimize the "friction" effects of overcoming distance, which involves the costs of time as well as travel.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 603.


Domestication

The transformation of a wild animal or wild plant into a domesticated animal or a cultivated crop to gain control over food production. A necessary evolutionary step in the development of humankind -- the invention of agriculture.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 603.


Double cropping

The planting, cultivation, and harvesting of two crops successively within a single year on the same plot of farmland.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 603.


Doubling time

The time required for a population to double in size.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 603.


E

Easement

1. A right of use over the property of another. Traditionally the permitted kinds of uses were limited, the most important being rights of way and rights concerning flowing waters. The easement was normally for the benefit of adjoining lands, no matter who the owner was (an easement appurtenant), rather than for the benefit of a specific individual (easement in gross). The land having the right of use as an appurtenance is known as the dominant tenement and the land which is subject to the easement is known as the servient tenement. 2. A right in the owner of one parcel of land, by reason of such ownership, to use the land of another for a special purpose not inconsistent with a general property in the owner. 3. An interest which one person has in the land of another. A primary characteristic of an easement is that its burden falls upon the possessor of the land from which it issued and that characteristic is expressed in the statement that the land constitutes a servient tenement and the easement a dominant tenement. An interest in land in and over which it is to be enjoyed, and is distinguishable from a "license" which merely confers personal privilege to do some act on the land.

1, 2, and 3. Black's Law Dictionary -- Abridged Sixth Edition; West Publishing Company; St. Paul; 1991; page 352.


Easement by estoppel

Easement which is created when landlord voluntarily imposes apparent servitude on his property and another person, acting reasonably, believes that servitude is permanent and in reliance upon that belief does something that he would not have done otherwise.

Black's Law Dictionary -- Abridged Sixth Edition; West Publishing Company; St. Paul; 1991; page 353.


Easement by implication

Easement created by law and grounded in court's decision in reference to particular transaction in land where owner of two parcels had so used one parcel to the benefit of other parcel that on selling the benefited parcel purchaser could reasonably have expected, without further inquiries, that these benefits were included in sale.

Black's Law Dictionary -- Abridged Sixth Edition; West Publishing Company; St. Paul; 1991; page 353.


Easement by prescription

A mode of acquiring an easement in property by immemorial or long-continued enjoyment, and refers to personal usage restricted to claimant and his ancestors or grantors. The uninterrupted use of the land must generally be for the same statutory period of time as for adverse possession.

Black's Law Dictionary -- Abridged Sixth Edition; West Publishing Company; St. Paul; 1991; page 353.


Easement in gross

An easement in gross is not appurtenant to any estate in land or does not belong to any person by virtue of ownership of estate in other land but is mere personal interest in or right to use land of another; it is purely personal and usually ends with death of grantee. Easements that do not benefit a particular tract of land (e.g. utility easements).

Black's Law Dictionary -- Abridged Sixth Edition; West Publishing Company; St. Paul; 1991; page 353.


Easement of access

Right of ingress and egress to and from the premises of a lot owner to a street appurtenant to the land of the lot owner.

Black's Law Dictionary -- Abridged Sixth Edition; West Publishing Company; St. Paul; 1991; page 353.


Easement of convenience

One which increases the facility, comfort, or convenience of the enjoyment of the dominant estate, or of some right connected with it.

Black's Law Dictionary -- Abridged Sixth Edition; West Publishing Company; St. Paul; 1991; page 353.


Easement of natural support

Easement which creates right of lateral support to land in its natural condition entitling the holder thereof to have his land held in place from the sides by neighboring land.

Black's Law Dictionary -- Abridged Sixth Edition; West Publishing Company; St. Paul; 1991; page 353.


Easement of necessity

One in which the easement is indispensable to the enjoyment of the dominant estate. Such arises by operation of law when land conveyed is completely shut off from access to any road by land retained by grantor or by land of grantor and that of a stranger.

Black's Law Dictionary -- Abridged Sixth Edition; West Publishing Company; St. Paul; 1991; page 353.


Easement, affirmative easement

One where the servient estate must permit something to be done thereon, as to pass over it, or to discharge water on it.

Black's Law Dictionary -- Abridged Sixth Edition; West Publishing Company; St. Paul; 1991; page 352.


Easement, apparent easement

One [where] the existence of which appears from the construction or condition of one of the tenements, so as to be capable of being seen or known on inspection.

Black's Law Dictionary -- Abridged Sixth Edition; West Publishing Company; St. Paul; 1991; page 352.


Easement, appendant easement

See Appurtenant easement.

Black's Law Dictionary -- Abridged Sixth Edition; West Publishing Company; St. Paul; 1991; page 352.


Easement, appurtenant easement

An easement that benefits a particular tract of land. An incorporeal right which is attached to a superior right and inheres in land to which it is attached and is in the nature of a covenant running with the land. There must be a dominant estate and servient estate. An easement interest which attaches to the land and passes with it. An "incorporeal right" which is attached to and belongs with some greater and superior right or something annexed to another thing more worthy and which passes as incident to it and is incapable of existence separate and apart from the particular land to which it is annexed.

Black's Law Dictionary -- Abridged Sixth Edition; West Publishing Company; St. Paul; 1991; page 352.


Easement, discontinuing easement

Discontinuous, non-continuous, or non-apparent easements are those the enjoyment of which can be had only by the interference of man, as, a right of way or a right to draw water.

Black's Law Dictionary -- Abridged Sixth Edition; West Publishing Company; St. Paul; 1991; page 353.


Easement, equitable easements

The special easements created by derivation of ownership of adjacent proprietors from a common source, with specific intentions as to buildings for certain purposes, or with implied privileges in regard to certain uses, are sometimes so called. A name frequently applied to building restrictions in a deed.

Black's Law Dictionary -- Abridged Sixth Edition; West Publishing Company; St. Paul; 1991; page 353.


Easement, exclusive easement

Grant of "exclusive easement" conveys unfettered rights to owner of easement to use that easement for purposes specified in grant to exclusion of all others.

Black's Law Dictionary -- Abridged Sixth Edition; West Publishing Company; St. Paul; 1991; page 353.


Easement, flowage easement

Common law right of lower land to allow water from higher land to flow across it.

Black's Law Dictionary -- Abridged Sixth Edition; West Publishing Company; St. Paul; 1991; page 353.


Easement, implied easement

One which the law imposes by inferring the parties to a transaction intended that result, although they did not express it. An easement resting upon the principle that, where the owner of two or more adjacent lots sells a part thereof, he grants by implication to the grantee all those apparent and visible easements which are necessary for the reasonable use of the property granted, which at the time of the grant are used by the owner of the entirety for the benefit of the part granted. One not expressed by parties in writing but arises out of existence of certain facts implied from the transaction.

Black's Law Dictionary -- Abridged Sixth Edition; West Publishing Company; St. Paul; 1991; page 353.


Easement, intermittent easement

One which is usable or used only at times, and not continuously.

Black's Law Dictionary -- Abridged Sixth Edition; West Publishing Company; St. Paul; 1991; page 353.


Easement, light and air easement

An easement obtained from an adjoining land owner to protect against the obstruction of light and air which would result if a building or structure was constructed on the grantor's property.

Black's Law Dictionary -- Abridged Sixth Edition; West Publishing Company; St. Paul; 1991; page 353.


Easement, negative easement

Those where the owner of the servient estate is prohibited from doing something otherwise lawful upon his estate, because it will affect the dominant estate (as interrupting the light and air from the latter by building on the former). As to Reciprocal negative easement, see that title below.

Black's Law Dictionary -- Abridged Sixth Edition; West Publishing Company; St. Paul; 1991; page 353.


Easement, private or public easements

A private easement is one in which the enjoyment is restricted to one or a few individuals, while a public easement of which is vested in the public generally or in an entire community; such as an easement of passage on the public streets and highways or of navigation on a stream.

Black's Law Dictionary -- Abridged Sixth Edition; West Publishing Company; St. Paul; 1991; page 353.


Easement, quasi easement

An "easement," in the proper sense of the word, can only exist in respect of two adjoining pieces of land occupied by different persons, and can only impose a negative duty on the owner of the servient tenement. Hence an obligation on the owner of land to repair the fence between his and his neighbor's land is not a true easement, but is sometimes called a "quasi easement."

Black's Law Dictionary -- Abridged Sixth Edition; West Publishing Company; St. Paul; 1991; page 353.


Easement, reciprocal negative easement

If the owner of two or more lots, so situated as to bear the relation, sells one with restrictions of benefit to the land retained, the servitude becomes mutual, and, during the period of restraint, the owner of the lot or lots retained can do nothing forbidden to the owner of the lot sold; this being known as the doctrine of "reciprocal negative easement."

Black's Law Dictionary -- Abridged Sixth Edition; West Publishing Company; St. Paul; 1991; page 353-354.


Easement, reserved easement

An easement created by the grantor of property, benefiting the retained property and burdening the granted property.

Black's Law Dictionary -- Abridged Sixth Edition; West Publishing Company; St. Paul; 1991; page 354.


Easement, secondary easement

One which is appurtenant [belonging to] to the primary or actual easement. Every easement includes such "secondary easements," that is, the right to do such things as are necessary for the full enjoyment itself.

Black's Law Dictionary -- Abridged Sixth Edition; West Publishing Company; St. Paul; 1991; page 354.


Ecological network

The network of nature's patterns and processes across the land; mapped as the combination of large patches of natural vegetation and major corridors or routes of animal movements and water flows.

Forman, R. T. T., and A. M. Hersperger. 1996. Road ecology and road density in different landscapes, with international planning and mitigation solutions. Pages 1 - 22 in Trends Addressing Transportation Related Wildlife Mortality, Tallahassee, Florida, State of Florida, Department of Transportation.


Ecology

Strictly speaking, this refers to the study of the many interrelationships between all forms of life and the natural environments in which they have evolved and continue to develop. The study of ecosystems focuses on the interactions between specific organisms and their environments. See also cultural ecology.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 603-604.


Economies of scale

The savings that accrue from large-scale production whereby the unit cost of manufacturing decreases as the level of operation enlarges. Supermarkets operate on this principle and are able to charge lower prices than small grocery stores.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 604.


Ecoregion

A regionalization, classification, and mapping system for stratifying the Earth into progressively smaller areas of increasingly uniform ecological potentials. Ecological types are classified and ecological units are mapped based on associations of those biotic and environmental factors that directly affect or indirectly express energy, moisture, and nutrient gradients which regulate the structure and function of ecosystems. These factors include climate, physiography, water, soils, air, hydrology, and potential natural communities.

ECOMAP. 1993. National hierarchical framework of ecological units. Unpublished administrative paper. Washington, DC. U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 20 p.


Ecotypic

The smallest taxonomic subdivision of an ecospecies, consisting of populations adapted to a particular set of environmental conditions. The populations are infertile with other ecotypes of the same ecospecies.

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.


Ecumene

The habitable portions of the earth's surface where permanent human settlements have arisen.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 604.


Edge

The portion of an ecosystem near its perimeter, where influences of the surroundings prevent development of interior environmental conditions.

Forman, R. T. T. 1995. Land mosaics: The ecology of landscapes and regions. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.


Elite

A small but influential upper-echelon social class whose power and privilege give it control over a country's political, economic, and cultural life.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 604.


Emigrant

A person migrating away from a country or area; an out-migrant.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 604.


Eminent domain

The power to take private property for public use by the state, municipalities, and private persons or corporations authorized to exercise functions of public character. In the United States, the power of eminent domain is founded in both the federal (Fifth Amendment) and state constitutions. The Constitution limits the power to taking for a public purpose and prohibits the exercise of the power of eminent domain without just compensation to the owners of the property which is taken. The process of exercising the power of eminent domain is commonly referred to as "condemnation", or, "expropriation". The right of eminent domain is the right of the state, through its regular organization, to reassert, either temporarily or permanently, its dominion over any portion of the soil of the state on account of public exigency and for the public good. Thus, in time of war or insurrection, the proper authorities may possess and hold any part of the territory of the state for the common safety; and in time of peace the legislature may authorize the appropriation of the same to public purposes, such as the opening of roads, construction of defenses, or providing channels for trade or travel. Eminent domain is the highest and most exact idea of property remaining in the government, or in the aggregate body of the people in their sovereign capacity. It gives a right to resume the possession of the property in the manner directed by the constitution and the laws of the state, whenever the public interest requires it.

Black's Law Dictionary -- Abridged Sixth Edition; West Publishing Company; St. Paul; 1991; page 362.


Empirical

Relating to the real world, as opposed to theoretical abstraction.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 604.


Enabling statute

A law that permits what was previously prohibited or that creates new powers; esp., a congressional statute conferring powers on an executive agency to carry out various delegated tasks. Also termed enabling act.

Black’s Law Dictionary – Deluxe Seventh Edition; West Publishing Company; St. Paul; 1999; page 1420.


Enclave

A piece of territory that is surrounded by another political unit of which it is not a part.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 604.


Endangered species

The Department of the Interior is charged with the responsibility of identifying species of wildlife that are in imminent danger of extinction. Such species are officially designated as "endangered." Species whose populations have been declining rapidly but are not yet in imminent danger of extinction are classified as "threatened."

Owen, Oliver S., "Natural Resource Conservation: An Ecological Approach," Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, 1985, page 359.


Environmental Assessment (EA)

A report on how a subdivision (or other development) will impact the public interest, for example, impacts on air and water quality, public health and safety, and delivery of public services. Environmental assessments are required as part of some subdivision reviews.

"Getting the Growth You Want (Part One): A citizen's guide to subdivisions and smart growth," by the Montana Smart Growth Coalition, and the Greater Yellowstone Coalition, Montana Smart Growth Coalition , 1st printing, September 2002, page 30.


Environmental determinism

The view that the natural environment has a controlling influence over various aspects of human life, including cultural development. Also referred to as environmentalism.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 604.


Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)

Created and popularized by the establishment of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the EIS has now become one of the most potent tools in the planning process. An EIS consists of a detailed analysis of the impact of a proposed project upon the total environment -- natural and man-made -- within the general vicinity of the project or in an affected area at any distance. Communities are discovering that an EIS on all major projects (not just those federally funded) is a useful means of making certain that good planning principles are followed and that areas beyond the project are adequately protected.

Smith, Herbert H. The Citizen's Guide to Planning. American Planning Association, Chicago, 1979, page 164.


Environmental inventory

Compilation and classification of data and information on the natural and human features in an area proposed for some sort of planning project.

Marsh, William M., "Landscape Planning: Environmental Applications." John Wiley and Sons, New York. Page 340. 1983.


Erosion

A combination of gradational forces that shape the earth's surface landforms. Running water, wind action, and the force of moving ice combine to wear away soil and rock. Human activities often speed erosional processes, such as through the destruction of natural vegetation, careless farming practices, and overgrazing by livestock.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 604.


Estate tax

A tax imposed on property transferred by will or interstate succession. Black’s Law Dictionary – Deluxe Seventh Edition; West Publishing Company; St. Paul; 1999; page 1469. Interstate Succession. The method used to distribute property owner by a person who dies without a valid will.

Black’s Law Dictionary – Deluxe Seventh Edition; West Publishing Company; St. Paul; 1999; page 827.


Evapotranspiration

The loss of moisture to the atmosphere through the combined processes of evaporation from the soil and transpiration by plants.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 604.


Exclave

A bounded (non-island) piece of territory that is part of a particular state but lies separated from it by the territory of another state.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 604.


Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)

An oceanic zone extending up to 200 nautical miles from a shoreline, within which the coastal state can control fishing, mineral exploration, and additional activities by all other countries.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 604.


Expansion diffusion

The spreading of an innovation or an idea through a fixed population in such a way that the number of those adopting grows continuously larger, resulting in an expanding area of dissemination.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 604.


Externality

An external effect or externality can arise when two conditions are present: 1. For any two (or more) economic agents (consumers or firms) "i" and "j", an externality is present whenever agent "i's" utility or production relationship includes variables whose magnitudes are chosen by the other agent(s), "j", without regard to "i's" own preferences. 2. The "i-th" individual or firm has no control over the variables chosen by "j" because the variables have no explicit exchange value. No markets (or imperfect markets) exist for the variables entering "i's" objective frontier. Air and water pollution are examples of negative externalities or external diseconomies--cases where individuals and firms discard waste products into the environment without acknowledging the damages these products cause to others…A public external diseconomy arises when a natural resource is used without payment, and the "consumption" of the externality by one agent does not reduce the consumption of the externality by others. Again, air and water pollution are examples of public external diseconomies. A private external diseconomy is typically bilateral, or involves relatively few agents. One party's actions affect the actions of another party, but there is no spillover of the externality to other agents.

Hartwick, John M., and Nancy D. Olewiler. "The Economics of Natural Resource Use," page 382-383 and 386-387 . Harper and Row Publishers, New York, 1986.


Extraterritoriality

Politico-geographical concept suggesting that the property of one state lying within the boundaries of another actually forms an extension of the first state.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 604.


F

Federal state

A political framework wherein a central government represents the various entities within a nation-state where they have common interests -- defense, foreign affairs, and the like -- yet allows these various entities to retain their own identities and to have their own laws, policies, and customs in certain spheres.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 604.


Federation

The association and cooperation of two or more nation-states or territories to promote common interests and objectives.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 604.


Feudalism

Prevailing politico-geographical system in Europe during the Middle Ages when land was owned by the nobility and was worked by peasants and serfs. Feudalism also existed in other parts of the world, and the system persisted into this century in Ethiopia and Iran, among other places.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 604.


Final plat

The final set of plans sent by the subdivider to the local government for review. The final plat has often changed significantly from the preliminary plat. Once the government approves the final plat, the subdivision process is complete.

"Getting the Growth You Want (Part One): A citizen's guide to subdivisions and smart growth," by the Montana Smart Growth Coalition, and the Greater Yellowstone Coalition, Montana Smart Growth Coalition , 1st printing, September 2002, page 30.


Floodplain

Low-lying area adjacent to a mature river, often covered by alluvial deposits and subject to the river's floods.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 604.


Forced migration

Human migration flows in which the movers have no choice but to relocate.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 604.


Formal region

A type of region marked by a certain degree of homogeneity in one or more phenomena; also called uniform region or homogeneous region.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 604.


Fragmentation

1. Both a process and a pattern. Habitat fragmentation is a term that has been used in many different ways. Habitat fragmentation, by definition, is an event that creates a greater number of habitat patches that are smaller in size than the original contiguous tract(s) of habitat. Yet, the term commonly is used to describe human practices that destroy habitat. This usage is misleading because there are situations in which habitat can be removed without fragmenting the landscape whatsoever. 2. Fragmentation can be defined as the loss and isolation of natural habitats. It is considered to have two components: 1) reduction of the total amount of habitat type, or perhaps of all natural, habitat in a landscape; and 2) apportionment of the remaining habitat into smaller, more isolated patches. 3. The breaking up of a habitat, ecosystem, or land-use type into smaller parcels.

1. http://www.findarticles.com/m2120/n2_v79/20574296/p1/article.jhtm ; 2. http://www.umsl.edu/~sorkv/Bio240/Pages/Fragmentation.html

 
Freehold title

A freehold title to land is an exclusive, enforceable, transferable, and generally divisible right that holds forever.

Hartwick, John M., and Nancy D. Olewiler. "The Economics of Natural Resource Use," page 8. Harper and Row Publishers, New York, 1986.


Frontier

Zone of advance penetration, of contention; an area not fully integrated into a national state.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 605.


Functional region

A region marked less by its sameness than its dynamic internal structure; because it usually focuses on a central node, also called nodal or focal region.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 605.


Functional specialization

The production of particular goods or services as a dominant activity in a particular location. Certain cities specialize in producing automobiles, computers or steel; others mainly serve tourists.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 605.


G

Gentrification

A word of recent vintage that portends an increasingly meaningful social dilemma. In simple terms, this refers to the trend of the return of the "gentry" or well-to-do to the inner-city residential areas, which is resulting in a displacement of lower-income persons, many of whom were renters. Older neighborhood homes are becoming more attractive to persons with means as the energy crisis continues and as city living once again becomes acceptable. The displacement of the poorer families creates a problem of finding adequate housing for them and begins the transfer of what probably has been a heterogeneous area back into a homogeneous one.

Smith, Herbert H. The Citizen's Guide to Planning. American Planning Association, Chicago, 1979, page 164.


Geographic realm

The basic spatial unit in our world regional classification. Each realm is defined in terms of a synthesis of its total human geography -- a composite of its leading cultural, economic, historical, political, and appropriate environmental factors.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 605.


Geometric boundaries

Political boundaries defined and delimited (and occasionally demarcated) as straight lines or arcs. See also "definition" and "delimitation".

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 605.


Geomorphology

The geographic study of the configuration of the earth's solid surface -- the world's landscapes and their constituent landforms.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 605.


Gentrification

A word of recent vintage that portends an increasingly meaningful social dilemma. In simple terms, this refers to the trend of the return of the "gentry" or well-to-do to the inner-city residential areas, which is resulting in a displacement of lower-income persons, many of whom were renters. Older neighborhood homes are becoming more attractive to persons with means as the energy crisis continues and as city living once again becomes acceptable. The displacement of the poorer families creates a problem of finding adequate housing for them and begins the transfer of what probably has been a heterogeneous area back into a homogeneous one.

Smith, Herbert H., "The Citizen's Guide to Planning." American Planning Association, Chicago and New York, page 164, 1979.


Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

An organized collection of computer hardware, software, geographic data, and personnel designed to efficiently capture, store, update, manipulate, analyze, and display all forms of geographically referenced information. Certain complex spatial operations are possible with a GIS that would be very difficult, time consuming, or impracticable otherwise.

Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc., "Understanding GIS, The Arc/Info Method," 1995, page xxx.


Ghetto

An intraurban region marked by a particular ethnic character. Often an inner-city poverty zone, such as the black ghetto in the American central city. Ghetto residents are involuntarily segregated from other income and racial groups.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 605.


Grassbanks

The purpose of a Grassbank is to make possible the ecological restoration and productivity of grazing lands. By improving the condition of the land, a Grassbank can strengthen the foundation of a region or area's ranching heritage. It can also help reduce conflicts between grazing and other land uses.
Grassbanks require collaboration among ranchers and, generally, public land managers, so that the grazing lands involved are of sufficient size to allow restoration of land and the rotation of cattle to actively grazed areas. The rested portion of the land may then be allowed to grow a crop of grass that may then be burned in a controlled fire. Such a fire can check and even reverse the encroachment of trees and shrubs into grasslands. Alternatively, other treatments could be considered, such as small-diameter timber removal or brush control and reseeding. Continue rest for one or more grazing seasons will allow desired new vegetation to grow prior to returning livestock to the area.

If ranchers are able to move their cattle to other grazing lands while restoring all or part of their lands, there would be no need to reduce or suspend normal ranching operations. A Grassbank thereby makes it possible for a rancher to maintain the economic viability of his or her operation and removes a significant disincentive for enhanced range management.

In addition to the Malpai Borderlands Group, the Conservation Fund is involved in a Grassbank initiative in northern New Mexico, involving the US Forest Service and the Northern New Mexico Stockman's Association. The Conservation Fund has bought a property qualifying it to become a permittee of a substantial grazing allotment within Santa Fe National Forest. The Fund will allow other national forest permittees from northern New Mexico to graze on their allotment while the Forest Service and the permittees to restore other grazing allotments.

For more information on these Grassbanks initiatives, contact:

Bill deBuys
1511 Don Gaspar
Santa Fe, NM 87505
Phone: (505) 984-2871
Email: wdebuys@aol.com

http://www.sonoran.org/library/terms/grass.Html; accessed October 30, 2001.


Green revolution

The successful recent development of higher yield, fast-growing varieties of rice and other cereals in certain Third World countries. This has led to increased production per unit area and a temporary narrowing of the gap between population growth and food needs.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 605.


Gross National Product (GNP)

The total value of all goods and services produced in a country during a given year. In some underdeveloped countries (UDCs), where a substantial number of people practice subsistence and where the collection of information is difficult, GNP figures may be unreliable.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 605.


Growth policy

A plan for the future growth of an area and a report on the state of the area's current growth. The future plan includes goals and objectives for new growth and a strategy and timeline for meeting those goals. The current report includes information on local population, geography, development, natural resources, housing, economy, and transportation. Growth policies were previously called comprehensive plans.

"Getting the Growth You Want (Part One): A citizen's guide to subdivisions and smart growth," by the Montana Smart Growth Coalition, and the Greater Yellowstone Coalition, Montana Smart Growth Coalition , 1st printing, September 2002, page 30-31.


Growing season

The number of days between the last frost in the spring and the first frost of the fall.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 605.


Growth pole

An urban center with certain attributes that, if augmented by a measure of investment support, will stimulate regional economic development in its hinterland.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 605.


H

Habitat

The natural environment of a place, consisting of climate, soils, plants, and animals. The term is a synonym for environment.

Wallen, Robert N., "Introduction to Physical Geography," William C. Brown Publishers, Dubuque, IA, 1992, page 524.


Hacienda

Literally, a large estate in a Spanish-speaking country. Sometimes equated with plantation, but there are important differences between these two types of agricultural enterprise.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 605.


Hierarchical diffusion

A form of diffusion in which an idea or innovation spreads by "trickling down" from larger to smaller adoption units. An urban hierarchy is usually involve, encouraging the leapfrogging of innovations over wide areas, with geographic distance a less important influence.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 605.


Hierarchy

An order of gradation of phenomena, with each level or rank subordinate to the one above it and superior to the one below. The levels in a national urban hierarchy are constituted by hamlets, villages, towns, cities, and (frequently) the primate city.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 605.


Hinterland

Literally, "country behind," a term that applies to a surrounding area served by an urban center. That center is the focus of goods and services produced for its hinterland and is its dominant urban influence as well. In the case of a port city, the hinterland also includes the inland area whose trade flows through that port.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 605.


Holistic management

Simply put, Holistic Management is a specific, practical, common-sense approach to management that guides organizations, businesses and institutions to decisions that are sound in all aspects: financial, social and ecological. Based on the concept of Holism (the whole is greater than the sum of the parts), and consistent with modern theories of physics, it sees all organizations, civilizations, the natural world and indeed the universe, as an inter-relating series of wholes, rather than in interconnected series of parts. Based on a goal that includes the needs of the people, finances, and the resource base, it is perhaps the most revolutionary approach to management in the last 500 or more years. Holistic Resource Management is a simple (but not necessarily easy), common-sense, yet revolutionary decision-making “mental model”. One can start at almost any point in the decision-making “cycle”, but it is described here in order from “defining the whole” to “monitoring actions”. “Holism” is the theory that with any organism, or “whole”, the whole is greater than the sum of the parts. The theory of holism also suggests that the universe does not consist of separate “things”, but rather sets of patterns, or relationships, each of which is a “whole”. The universe is really a multitude of wholes within wholes, so it follows that consciously managing “wholes” is likely to be more successful than managing parts in relative isolation from each other.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 605.


I

Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991.

Landmark legislation for balanced federal highway funding and the predecessor to TEA-21.

"Increasing Physical Activity Through Community Design: A Guide for Public Health Practitioners," National Center for Bicycling and Walking, May 2002, Page 31.

Iconography

The identity of a region as expressed through its cherished symbols; its particular cultural landscape and personality.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 605-606.

Immigrant

A person migrating into a particular country or area; an in-migrant.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 606.

Infrastructure

The foundations of a society; urban centers, communications, farms, factories, mines, and such facilities as schools, hospitals, postal services, and police and armed forces.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 606.

Inheritance tax

A tax imposed on a person who inherits property from another (unlike an estate tax, which is imposed on the decedent’s estate). There is no federal inheritance tax, but some states provide for one (though it is deductible under the federal estate tax).

Black’s Law Dictionary – Deluxe Seventh Edition; West Publishing Company; St. Paul; 1999; page 1470.

Insular

Having the qualities and properties of an island. Real islands are not alone in possessing such properties of isolation: an oasis in the middle of a desert also has qualities of insularity.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 606.

Intermontane

Literally, "between mountains." The location can bestow certain qualities of natural protection or isolation to a community.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 606.

Internal migration

Migration flow within a nation-state, such as ongoing westward and southward movements in the United States and eastward movement in the Soviet Union.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 606.

International migration

Migration flow involving movement across international borders.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 606.

Irrigation

The artificial watering of croplands. In Egypt's Nile Valley, basin irrigation is an ancient method that involved the use of floodwaters that were trapped in basins on the floodplain and released in stages to augment rainfall. Today's perennial irrigation requires the construction of dams and irrigation canals for year-round water supply.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 606.

Isobar

A line connecting points of equal atmospheric pressure.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 606.

Isohyet

A line connecting points of equal rainfall total.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 606.

Isolation

The condition of being geographically cut off or far removed from mainstreams of thought and action. It also denotes a lack of receptivity to outside influences, caused at least partially by inaccessibility.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 606.

Isoline

A line connecting points of equal value.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 606.

Isotherm

A line connecting equal points of temperature.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 606.

J

Juxtaposition

Contrasting places in close proximity to one another.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 606.

L

Land alienation

One society or culture group taking land from anther. In Subsaharan Africa, for example European colonialists took land from indigenous Africans and put it to new uses, fencing it off and restricting settlement.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 606.


Land trust

A private, nonprofit conservation organization formed to protect natural resources such as productive farm and forest land, natural areas, historic structures and recreational areas. Land trusts purchase and accept donations of conservation easements. They educate the public about the need to conserve land, and some provide land use and estate planning services to local governments and individual citizens.

American Farmland Trust, Farmland Information Center, Fact Sheet, Glossary, September, 1998 http://www.farmlandinfo.org/fic/tas/tafs-gloss.html.


Landlocked

An interior country or state that is surrounded by land. Without coasts, a landlocked state is at a disadvantage in a number of ways -- in terms of access to international trade routes, and in the scramble for possession of areas of the continental shelf and control of the exclusive economic zone beyond.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 606.


Land-use planning

The deliberate, systematic development of real estate through methods such as zoning, environmental impact studies, and the like.

Black’s Law Dictionary – Deluxe Seventh Edition; West Publishing Company; St. Paul; 1999; page 884.


Leasehold

A leasehold is like the freehold title in that it is exclusive and enforceable and can be transferable and divisible, but it is of limited duration.

Hartwick, John M., and Nancy D. Olewiler. "The Economics of Natural Resource Use," page 8. Harper and Row Publishers, New York, 1986.


Limited development

The concept of limited development is not new. For years, landowners have been selling off a few lots to meet their financial needs. What is new is the concept of protecting the rest the property from future development by selling a few carefully selected lots rather than subdividing an entire property.

More innovative limited development plans include restrictions on the location and number of home sites, enforced by Conservation Easements. Under this arrangement, a landowner can generate more income with fewer home sites because the value of each site increases when the land around it is protected forever. Often times, a portion of the tax liability from the sale of a protected home site can be offset by using a conservation easement as the device for restricting development.

In cases where there are several home sites, the landowner can sell them all at once or one by one as income is needed. Unlike conventional subdivision, this process allows landowners to realize a return from their property and at the same time safeguard some of its natural assets.

Whether the landowner decides to sell one or ten home sites, all lots should be chose so they do not interfere with the property's scenic or natural resources, or in the case of a farm or ranch, traditional operations.

http://www.sonoran.org/library/terms/limited.html; accessed October 30, 2001.


Local government

A city government, county government, or city-county government. If the subdivision you are connected with is in an incorporated town or city, then it's the city government you need to deal with. If the subdivision you are concerned with is not within any incorporated city or town, then it's the county government that you need to deal with. If you have consolidated government, all subdivision proposals go to the city-county government.

"Getting the Growth You Want (Part One): A citizen's guide to subdivisions and smart growth," by the Montana Smart Growth Coalition, and the Greater Yellowstone Coalition, Montana Smart Growth Coalition , 1st printing, September 2002, Page 31.


Local Public Agency (LPA)

The way in which federal legislation refers to the governmental agency designated as the one responsible for administering the federal programs for urban renewal. LPA's could be the local governing body, a housing authority, or a separate urban renewal authority, depending on the desires of the policymakers in the community.

Smith, Herbert H., "The Citizen's Guide to Planning." American Planning Association, Chicago and New York, page 162, 1979.


Local subdivision

Rules adopted by a local government that outline how subdivisions are to be approved and/or denied. Local subdivision regulations vary from place to place, but all such regulations have to comply with minimum standards set by the state.

"Getting the Growth You Want (Part One): A citizen's guide to subdivisions and smart growth," by the Montana Smart Growth Coalition, and the Greater Yellowstone Coalition, Montana Smart Growth Coalition , 1st printing, September 2002, Page 31.


M

Major subdivision

A subdivision that creates 6 or more "new" lots.

"Getting the Growth You Want (Part One): A citizen's guide to subdivisions and smart growth," by the Montana Smart Growth Coalition, and the Greater Yellowstone Coalition, Montana Smart Growth Coalition , 1st printing, September 2002, Page 31.


Market failures

Even if there were a full set of private property rights, certain "market imperfections" or "market failures" would still exist and income might not be distributed equitably. Nonrenewable resources get used up too quickly; urban activity "eats up" agricultural land; trees are not harvested quickly enough. These are called market failures because the free interaction of individuals in the economy leads to inefficient outcomes. Some essential ingredient necessary for the efficient allocation of resources is missing.

Hartwick, John M., and Nancy D. Olewiler. "The Economics of Natural Resource Use," page 11. Harper and Row Publishers, New York, 1986.


Minor subdivision

A subdivision that creates 5 or fewer "new" lots.

"Getting the Growth You Want (Part One): A citizen's guide to subdivisions and smart growth," by the Montana Smart Growth Coalition, and the Greater Yellowstone Coalition, Montana Smart Growth Coalition , 1st printing, September 2002, Page 31.


N

National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969

In 1969 Congress passed the national Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which established a new national policy on environmental protection, set up the Council on Environmental Quality, and required the preparation of environmental impact statements for major federal projects.

So, Frank S., Judith Getzels, editors. "The Practice of Local Government Planning," Second Edition, International City Management Association, 1988, page 121.


National Land Cover Data (NLCD)

One of the projects sponsored by the MRLC consortium was production of land-cover data derived from images acquired by Landsat's Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor, as well as a number of ancillary data sources. The NLCD includes the source images, as well as classified land-cover data for specific acquisition dates. It is the first national land-cover data set produced since the early 1970s, effectively replacing the LUDA and GIRAS data sets. Data for the conterminous United States circa 1992 (1992 NLCD) , which were derived from Landsat-5 TM images are complete and currently available for download. Description of the data, as well as the classification process utilized have been published in a number of journal articles. Currently, the entire United States is being mapped using imagery acquired circa 2000 (2000 NLCD) from Landsat-7's enhanced TM (ETM). This project entails re-mapping the lower 48 states, as well as covering Hawaii and Alaska for the first time. Classification schemes for the two rounds of classification are similar, but not identical. Accuracy of the 1992 NLCD is currently being conducted by EPA federal region, with some regions complete and reported.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium, http://www.epa.gov/mrlc/nlcd.html, accessed March 4, 2003.


NCBW

National Center for Bicycling and Walking

"Increasing Physical Activity Through Community Design: A Guide for Public Health Practitioners," National Center for Bicycling and Walking, May 2002, Page 41.


NPTS

Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey

"Increasing Physical Activity Through Community Design: A Guide for Public Health Practitioners," National Center for Bicycling and Walking, May 2002, Page 3.


National Wetlands Inventory (NWI)

The National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service produces information on the characteristics, extent, and status of the Nation’s wetlands and deepwater habitats. This information is used by Federal, State, and local agencies, academic institutions, U.S. Congress, and the private sector. The Emergency Wetland Resources Act of 1986 directs the Service to map the wetlands of the United States. The NWI has mapped 89% of the lower 48 states, and 31% of Alaska. The Act also requires the Service to produce a digital wetlands database for the United States. About 39% of the lower 48 states and 11% of Alaska are digitized. Congressional mandates require the NWI to produce status and trends reports to Congress at ten-year intervals. In 1982, the NWI produced the first comprehensive and statistically valid estimate of the status of the Nation’s wetlands and wetland losses, and in 1990 produced the first update. Future national updates scheduled for 2000, 2010, and 2020. In addition to the status and trends reports, the NWI has produced over 130 publications, including manuals, plant and hydric soils lists, field guides, posters, wall size resource maps, atlases, and state reports, and has had numerous articles published by professional journals.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Wetlands Inventory, http://wetlands.fws.gov/overview.htm, accessed March 4, 2003.


Natural (or physical) boundary

Natural boundaries are those based on recognizable physiographic features, such as mountains, rivers, and lakes. Although they might seem to be attractive as borders because they actually exist in the landscape and are visible dividing elements, many natural boundaries have proved to be unsatisfactory. That is, they do not effectively separate states.

Fellman, Jerome, Arthur Getis, and Judith Getis. "Human Geography - Landscapes of Human Activities." Wm. C. Brown Publishers, Iowa. 1992. Page 423.


Natural capital

Natural Capital is an extension of the economic notion of capital (manufactured means of production) to environmental 'goods and services'. It refers to a stock (e.g., a forest) which produces a flow of goods (e.g., new trees) and services (e.g., carbon sequestration, erosion control, habitat). Natural capital can be divided into renewable and non-renewable; the level of flow of non-renewable resources (e.g., fossil fuels) is determined politically.

EcoSteps, Sustainability Challenge, http://www.ecosteps.com.au/whatissustainability/definitions.htm, accessed March 4, 2003.


Neighborhood plan

A sub-plan within a growth policy that provides for the future development of a single neighborhood.

"Getting the Growth You Want (Part One): A citizen's guide to subdivisions and smart growth," by the Montana Smart Growth Coalition, and the Greater Yellowstone Coalition, Montana Smart Growth Coalition, 1st printing, September 2002, Page 31.


Non-point source pollution

A diffuse source of pollutants, such as runoff from farmland or drainage from a strip mine.

Montgomery, Carla W., " Environmental Geology," William C. Brown Publishers, Dubuque, IA, 1995, page 487.


Nonrenewable natural resource

A resource with a finite stock or supply which, once used up, is gone.

Hartwick, John M., and Nancy D. Olewiler. "The Economics of Natural Resource Use," page 2. Harper and Row Publishers, New York, 1986.


O

Open access

Another term used to describe "common property."

Hartwick, John M., and Nancy D. Olewiler. "The Economics of Natural Resource Use," page 8. Harper and Row Publishers, New York, 1986.


Open space

1. An area of natural landscape essentially undeveloped, such as ridges, streams, natural shorelines, scenic buffer areas, and agricultural lands. 2. Public tracts which are dedicated primarily to pedestrian use, excluding thoroughfare right-of-ways.

1. The U.S. Department of Energy, Smart Communities Network web site, http://www.sustainable.doe.gov/codes/marin.shtml. 2. Duany Plater-Zybek & Company


P

Parcel

A part or portion of land. A part of an estate. "Parcel" as used with reference to land generally means a contiguous quantity of land in the possession of an owner. A contiguous quantity of land in possession of, owned by, or recorded as property of the same claimant person or company. Term may be synonymous with "lot." See also "Tract of Land."

Black's Law Dictionary -- Abridged Sixth Edition; West Publishing Company; St. Paul; 1991; page 768.


Planned Unit Development (PUD)

The number of people per unit area of arable land.

De Blij, H. J., and Perter O. Muller; Geography - Regions and Concepts; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore; 1992; page 608.


Physiologic density

1. One of the newer planning and zoning techniques. The original idea of the PUD was to allow greater flexibility than could be achieved by traditional zoning in planning the development of large parcels of land. 2. An area with a specified minimum contiguous acreage to be developed as a single entity according to a plan, containing one or more residential clusters or planned unit residential developments and one or more public, quasi-public, commercial or industrial areas in such ranges of ratios of nonresidential uses to residential uses as shall be specified in the zoning ordinance. Area of land controlled by landowner to be developed as a single entity for a number of dwelling units, and commercial and industrial uses, if any, the plan for which does not correspond in lot size, bulk or type of dwelling or commercial or industrial use, density, lot coverage and required open space to the regulations established in any one or more districts, created from time to time, under the provisions of a municipal zoning ordinance enacted pursuant to the conventional zoning enabling act of the state.

1. Smith, Herbert H., "The Citizen's Guide to Planning." American Planning Association, Chicago and New York, page 167, 1979; 2. Black's Law Dictionary -- Abridged Sixth Edition; West Publishing Company; St. Paul; 1991; page 796.


Planning board

A group of citizens appointed by elected officials to make recommendations on development proposals.

"Getting the Growth You Want (Part One): A citizen's guide to subdivisions and smart growth," by the Montana Smart Growth Coalition, and the Greater Yellowstone Coalition, Montana Smart Growth Coalition, 1st printing, September 2002, Page 31.


Plat

A plan or proposal for a development. A plat usually includes a map of the proposed development as well as supporting documents like an environmental assessment. Sometimes the map within the plat is also referred to as a plat. See also preliminary plat and final plat.

"Getting the Growth You Want (Part One): A citizen's guide to subdivisions and smart growth," by the Montana Smart Growth Coalition, and the Greater Yellowstone Coalition, Montana Smart Growth Coalition , 1st printing, September 2002, Page 31.


Point source pollution

Pollution that is discharged from an extremely restricted area or "point," such as the discharge of sulfur dioxide from a smokestack or the discharge of carbon monoxide from the exhaust pipe of a motor car. This contrasts with nonpoint pollution, such as the runoff from a farm or urban area.

Owen, Oliver S., "Natural Resource Conservation: An Ecological Approach," Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, 1985, page 636.


Population density

A measurement of the number of persons per unit area of land within predetermined limits, usually political or census boundaries.

Fellman, Jerome, Arthur Getis, and Judith Getis. "Human Geography - Landscapes of Human Activities," Wm. C. Brown Publishers, Iowa. 1992. Page 509.


Population projection

A statement of a population's future size, age, and sex composition based on the application of stated assumptions to current data.

Fellman, Jerome, Arthur Getis, and Judith Getis. " Human Geography - Landscapes of Human Activities," Wm. C. Brown Publishers, Iowa. 1992. Page 509.


Private property right

A private property right gives the holder the power to the exclusive use of a natural resource. The holder does not have to share the natural resource with another.

Hartwick, John M., and Nancy D. Olewiler. "The Economics of Natural Resource Use," page 8. Harper and Row Publishers, New York, 1986.


Property right

A property right is a bundle of characteristics that convey certain powers to the owner of the right. There are many different characteristics a property right can possess. For instance, a deed is a property right.

Hartwick, John M., and Nancy D. Olewiler. "The Economics of Natural Resource Use," page 2. Harper and Row Publishers, New York, 1986.


Property tax

A tax levied on the owner of property (esp. real property) usually based on the property’s value. Local governments often impose property taxes to finance school districts, municipal projects, and the like.

Black’s Law Dictionary – Deluxe Seventh Edition; West Publishing Company; St. Paul; 1999; page 1471.


Public lands

The general public domain; unappropriated lands; lands belonging to the United States and which are subject to sale or other disposal under general laws, and not reserved or held back for any special governmental or public purpose.

Black's Law Dictionary -- Abridged Sixth Edition; West Publishing Company; St. Paul; 1991; page 856.


Purchase of agricultural conservation easement

Purchase of agricultural conservation easement programs pay farmers to protect their land from development. PACE is known by a variety of other terms, the most common being purchase of development rights. Landowners sell agricultural conservation easements to a government agency or private conservation organization. The agency or organization usually pays them the difference between the value of the land for agriculture and the value of the land for its "highest and best use," which is generally residential or commercial development. Easement value is most often determined by professional appraisals, but may also be established through the use of a numerical scoring system that evaluates the suitability for agriculture of a piece of property.

American Farmland Trust, Farmland Information Center, Fact Sheet, September, 1998. http://www.farmlandinfo.org/fic/tas/tafs-fptool.html#pace.


R

Real estate transfer taxes

A real estate transfer tax is a levy on property sales. It is typically a small percentage of the purchase price and is usually paid by the buyer.

American Farmland Trust, Farmland Information Center, Fact Sheet, January, 1999. http://www.farmlandinfo.org/fic/tas/tafs-pacefund.html


Response time

The number of minutes required for an emergency vehicle (ambulance, police, or fire) to travel from its station or patrol to the site of an emergency.

"Getting the Growth You Want (Part One): A citizen's guide to subdivisions and smart growth," by the Montana Smart Growth Coalition, and the Greater Yellowstone Coalition, Montana Smart Growth Coalition , 1st printing, September 2002, Page 31.


Riparian restoration

Riparian ecosystems are declining throughout the southwestern United States, where many have disappeared completely. The rapid decline of these ecosystems has made riparian conservation a focal issue in the debate over land preservation and development in the Southwest. However, the science of repairing damaged riparian ecosystems is relatively young. Scientists are still seeking to answer fundamental questions on riparian ecosystem processes and the impacts of human activities. In addition, little is known about past riparian recovery efforts because the results of only a relatively small number of projects have been evaluated. One important tool has emerged that can help in the evaluation of the condition of degraded riparian ecosystems so that effective strategies for improving their condition can be developed. Authored, by Mark Briggs, director of research at the Rincon Institute in Tucson, Arizona, Riparian Ecosystem Recovery in Arid Lands: Strategies and References serves as a resource for public land managers, planners, developers, scientists, private landowners, and concerned citizens for developing site-specific riparian recovery strategies.

For more information, contact:

Mark Briggs, Director of Research
Sonoran Institute
7650 E. Broadway Blvd, Suite 203
Tucson, AZ 85710
Phone: (520) 290-0828
Fax: (520) 290-0969
Email: Sonoran@sonoran.org
To order Riparian Ecosystem Recovery in Arid Lands, contact:

University of Arizona Press
1-800-426-3797 (voice/fax)

http://www.sonoran.org/library/terms/Riparian.Html; accessed October 30, 2001.


S

Severance tax

A tax imposed on the value of oil, gas, timber, or other natural resources extracted from the earth.

Black’s Law Dictionary – Deluxe Seventh Edition; West Publishing Company; St. Paul; 1999; page 1471.

Shared roadway

Bicyclists and motorists share the travel lanes.

"Increasing Physical Activity Through Community Design: A Guide for Public Health Practitioners," National Center for Bicycling and Walking, May 2002, Page 19.

Shared-use path

A facility separated from motor vehicle traffic by an open space or barrier, and typically used by pedestrians, joggers, skaters and bicyclists as two-way facilities.

"Increasing Physical Activity Through Community Design: A Guide for Public Health Practitioners," National Center for Bicycling and Walking, May 2002, Page 21.

Shoulder bikeway

Paved and smooth roadway shoulder at least 4 feet wide.

"Increasing Physical Activity Through Community Design: A Guide for Public Health Practitioners," National Center for Bicycling and Walking, May 2002, Page 20.

Sidewalk

An improved facility for pedestrians that is usually, but not always, located in the public right-of-way next to a roadway and constructed of concrete or other hard, smooth surface.

"Increasing Physical Activity Through Community Design: A Guide for Public Health Practitioners," National Center for Bicycling and Walking, May 2002, Pages 13, and 15.

Smart growth

Community development pattern that is economically sound, environmentally friendly and supportive of community livability.

"Increasing Physical Activity Through Community Design: A Guide for Public Health Practitioners," National Center for Bicycling and Walking, May 2002, Pages 6, and 24.

Socioeconomic data

Involving social as well as economic factors; "socioeconomic status."

WordNet ® 1.6, © 1997 Princeton University.

Socioeconomic impact assessment

In the United States, social impact assessment (SIA) is the primary mechanism that has been developed to plan in advance for the social effects of development. SIA is usually an aspect of a broader socioeconomic impact assessment, which is tied, in turn, to an environmental impact statement. These studies, commonly prepared by consultants working for the developer of the project -- an oil company, a utility, or a governmental agency -- are ultimately submitted to the state or federal agency that must approve the project. The techniques for conducting an SIA are varied, with little consensus on any single best method. Generally the social assessment is done in conjunction with the assessment of economic, demographic, service, and fiscal impacts, to which it is obviously closely related. Besides the technical issues involved in the choice of a methodology, two other, more basic issues must also be addressed when an SIA is being designed. First, are impacts projected in the aggregate, for the community as a whole, or are separate projections made for different groups, such as elderly people, women, or newcomers? Second, what is the extent of community involvement in the assessment? Computerized socioeconomic assessment models are now commonly used to assess economic and demographic impacts of a project.

So, Frank S., Judith Getzels, editors. "The Practice of Local Government Planning," Second Edition, International City Management Association, 1988, pages 349-350.

Species

In modern biology, species are regarded conceptually as a population or series of populations within which free gene flow occurs under natural conditions. This means that all the normal, physiologically competent individuals at a given time are capable of breeding with all the other individuals of the opposite sex belonging to the same species or at least that they are capable of being linked genetically to them through chains of other breeding individuals. By definition they do not breed freely with members of other species.

Wilson, E. O., "Biodiversity," National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1998, page 5-6.

Sprawl

Sprawl is dispersed, low- density development with poor connectivity between related land uses.
In Suburban Nation, Duany et al. present the characteristics of sprawl very precisely. They put forth five key characteristics, which help identify sprawl:
1. Housing Subdivisions, Clusters or Pods: Housing subdivisions have only one function - to house people. Developers give them quaint names like Highlands Ranch, which indicates what was there before the development. Developers may refer to them as "villages, towns or neighborhoods" even though these developments have little or no resemblance to traditional American communities.
2. Shopping Centers, Strip Centers, Shopping Malls or Big-Box Retail: Shopping centers are also designed for only one purpose: shopping. These "centers" do not allow for mixed use, such as offices or living quarters above the shops. It is difficult to walk from home to the shopping center or mall because these areas are almost always surrounded by a huge parking lot and there are few sidewalks.
3. Office Parks or Campuses: The so-called office park or campus has characteristics similar to the shopping center and subdivision. It is a single-use facility, and that use is work. Developers want to convey the idea that these are "pastoral workplaces," but instead, the facilities are metal and glass compounds in the center of huge parking lots located just off the nearest freeway.
4. Civic Institutions: Modern civic buildings, such as churches, schools and city or county government buildings in traditional communities are places for community members to congregate. In sprawling development this mission is distorted; buildings are nondescript in their design, isolated from residential areas so no one can walk to them, and isolated from other civic buildings. Unlike traditional American communities, their location does not mark a focal point in the community. And again, they are surrounded by huge parking lots.
5. Parking Lots Connected by Expansive Roadways: Pavement is the link between subdivisions, shopping "centers," offices and civic institutions. Wide, pedestrian-unfriendly streets, freeways, and huge parking lots ensure that the only traffic between these components of suburbia will be of the wheeled kind.

Duany, Andres, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk and Jeff Speck. "Suburban Nation: The Rise of Sprawl and the Decline of the American Dream. North Point Press." New York. pp. 5-7.

Subdivider

A person who creates a division of land where one of the "new" parcels is less than 160 acres.

"Getting the Growth You Want (Part One): A citizen's guide to subdivisions and smart growth," by the Montana Smart Growth Coalition, and the Greater Yellowstone Coalition, Montana Smart Growth Coalition , 1st printing, September 2002, Page 31.

Subdivision

A division of land where one of the "new" parcels is less than 160 acres.

"Getting the Growth You Want (Part One): A citizen's guide to subdivisions and smart growth," by the Montana Smart Growth Coalition, and the Greater Yellowstone Coalition, Montana Smart Growth Coalition , 1st printing, September 2002, Page 31.

Subdivision regulation

The importance of subdivision regulation is often underestimated, particularly in suburban and rural areas. As one authority has put it, "subdivision regulation has become so important that [it] is a more important public control than is zoning with respect to land being developed or redeveloped." Yet the nature of subdivision regulation has changed dramatically over the years. Subdivision regulations are just one of a number of means communities use to carry out their planning programs. To be effective, subdivision regulations must be integrated with other local government plans, policies, and ordinances, such as the comprehensive or general plan and its capital improvement components, the zoning ordinance, the official map, utility extension policies, street improvement policies, environmental impact statement requirements, and various other development and environmental health regulations. The most important of these may be the comprehensive or general plan and the capital improvements program, which should provide the policy and analytical basis for the design and improvement standards included in the subdivision regulations.

So, Frank S., Judith Getzels, editors. "The Practice of Local Government Planning," Second Edition, International City Management Association, 1988, pages 198-203.

Suburban sprawl

One of the earliest uses of the word "sprawl" in terms of land use was in a 1937 speech by Earle Draper, then director of planning for the Tennessee Valley Authority: "Perhaps diffusion is too kind of word. ... In bursting its bounds, the city actually sprawled and made the countryside ugly ..., uneconomic [in terms] of services and doubtful social value." While there's no universally accepted definition, the Vermont Forum on Sprawl concisely defines sprawl as "dispersed development outside of compact urban and village centers along highways and in rural countryside."

Planners Web, http://www.plannersweb.com/sprawl/define.html, accessed March 3, 2003.

T

Taking

In criminal law and torts, the act of laying hold upon an article, with or without removing the same. It implies a transfer of possession, dominion, or control.

Black's Law Dictionary -- Abridged Sixth Edition; West Publishing Company; St. Paul; 1991; page 1012.

The Conservation Fund

The Conservation Fund is a national nonprofit organization that seeks sustainable conservation solutions, emphasizing the integration of economic and conservation goals. The Fund protects land and water through partnerships with corporations, nonprofit organizations, and public agencies. Since its inception in 1986, The Conservation Fund has acquired and protected some 1.3 million acres of land, including wetlands, wildlife refuges, scenic areas, historic and battlefield sites, and other significant lands. In addition to land conservation efforts, the Fund assists in the development and maintenance of trains and greenways, promotes efforts to preserve Civil War battlefield sites, develops economically feasible and environmentally sound approaches to freshwater resources, and provides assistance with land-use planning and ecological assessment. For more information, contact:

The Conservation Fund; 1800 N. Kent Street, Suite 1120; Arlington, VA 22209; phone: (703) 525-6300; Fax: (703) 525-4610

http://www.sonoran.org/library/terms/consfund.html; accessed October 30, 2001.

 
Tipping fees

Tipping fees are charged for dumping large quantities of trash, particularly construction waste, into landfills. As landfills have begun to reach capacity, these fees have have increased and restrictions have been placed on what can be landfilled. In fact, according to the National Solid Waste Management Association, tipping fees almost quadrupled between 1985 and 1995 in all regions of the country.

Communities are using higher tipping fees to create incentives for builders to recycle, salvage, and reduce waste during the construction process. Higher tipping fees have spurred some creative solutions. In Wake Forest, North Carolina, salvage materials from a refurbished building were donated to the nonprofit Habitat for Humanity for use in affordable housing projects.

For more information, contact:

Rocky Mountain Institute
1739 Snowmass Creek Road
Snowmass, CO 81654-9199
Phone: (970) 927-3851
Fax: (970) 927-3420

http://www.sonoran.org/library/terms/tipping.html; accessed October 30, 2001.

 
Tract of Land

A lot, piece or parcel of land, of greater or lesser size, the term not importing, in itself, any precise dimension, though term generally refers to a large piece of land. Term is synonymous with parcel of land and does not have reference to size but to contiguous quantity of land. See also "Parcel."

Black's Law Dictionary -- Abridged Sixth Edition; West Publishing Company; St. Paul; 1991; page 1037.

Transfer of development rights (TDR) program

A program that allows landowners to transfer the right to develop one parcel of land to a different parcel of land to prevent farmland conversion. TDR programs establish "sending areas" where land is to be protected by agricultural conservation easements and "receiving areas" where land may be developed at a higher density than would otherwise be allowed by local zoning. Landowners in the sending area sell development rights to landowners in the receiving area, generally through the private market. When the development rights are sold on a parcel, a conservation easement is recorded and enforced by the local government. In some cases, the local government may establish a "TDR bank" to buy and sell development rights. The development rights created by TDR programs are referred to as transferable development rights (TDRs) or transferable development credits (TDCs).

American Farmland Trust, Farmland Information Center, Fact Sheet, Glossary, September, 1998 http://www.farmlandinfo.org/fic/tas/tafs-gloss.html.

TE

Transportation Enhancement.

"Increasing Physical Activity Through Community Design: A Guide for Public Health Practitioners," National Center for Bicycling and Walking, May 2002, Page 33.

TEA-21

Transportation Efficiency Act for the 21st Century.

"Increasing Physical Activity Through Community Design: A Guide for Public Health Practitioners," National Center for Bicycling and Walking, May 2002, Page 31.

TIP

Transportation Improvement Program.

"Increasing Physical Activity Through Community Design: A Guide for Public Health Practitioners," National Center for Bicycling and Walking, May 2002, Page 29.

Traffic calming

A set of techniques that reduce the speed and aggressiveness of traffic.

"Increasing Physical Activity Through Community Design: A Guide for Public Health Practitioners," National Center for Bicycling and Walking, May 2002, Page 23.

TND

Traditional Neighborhood Development. A human scale, walkable community with moderate to high residential densities and a mixed-use core.

"Increasing Physical Activity Through Community Design: A Guide for Public Health Practitioners," National Center for Bicycling and Walking, May 2002, Page 6.

W

Watershed boundary

The watershed is a natural unit of land which collects precipitation and delivers runoff to a common outlet.

Newson, Malcolm, "Land, Water and Development: River Basin Systems and Their Sustainable Management," Routledge, London and New York, 1992, page xxix.

Wide outside lane

A lane of at least 14 feet that allows an average-size motor vehicle to safely pass a bicyclist without crossing over into the adjacent lane.

"Increasing Physical Activity Through Community Design: A Guide for Public Health Practitioners," National Center for Bicycling and Walking, May 2002, Page 19.

 

Z

Zoning - agricultural protection zoning (APZ)

Zoning is a form of local land use regulation. Agricultural protection zoning ordinances protect the agricultural land base by limiting non-farm uses, prohibiting high-density development, requiring houses to be built on small lots and restricting subdivision of land into parcels that are too small to farm. APZ takes many forms including: exclusive agricultural zoning, large minimum lot size zoning, area-based allowance zoning, fixed area-based allowance zoning; and sliding scale area-based allowance.

http://www.farmlandinfo.org/fic/tas/tafs-gloss.html; accessed October 30, 2001.

 
Zoning - area-based allowance zoning

These ordinances establish a formula for the number of non-farm dwellings permitted per acre, but houses are typically built on small lots.

http://www.farmlandinfo.org/fic/tas/tafs-gloss.html; accessed October 30, 2001.

Zoning - exclusive agricultural zoning

This form of zoning prohibits non-farm residences and most non-agricultural activities; exceptions are made for parcels of land that are not suitable for farming.

http://www.farmlandinfo.org/fic/tas/tafs-gloss.html; accessed October 30, 2001.

Zoning - fixed area-based allowance zoning

These ordinances specify a certain number of units per acre.

http://www.farmlandinfo.org/fic/tas/tafs-gloss.html; accessed October 30, 2001.

Zoning - large minimum lot size zoning

These ordinances require a certain number of acres for every non-farm dwelling, typically at least 20 acres in the eastern United States or at least 35 acres in other regions.

http://www.farmlandinfo.org/fic/tas/tafs-gloss.html; accessed October 30, 2001.

Zoning-sliding scale area-based allowance zoning

Under these ordinances, the number of dwellings permitted varies with the size of the tract. Owners of smaller parcels are allowed to divide their land into more lots on a per-acre basis than owners of larger parcels.

http://www.farmlandinfo.org/fic/tas/tafs-gloss.html; accessed October 30, 2001.

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