1000 E. University Ave., Dept. 3274
Laramie, WY 82071
Phone: (307) 766-4300
Toll Free: (800) 4487801
Examinations are a fundamental form of assessment, but pose particular challenges in distance education. Outreach Credit Programs is committed to assisting faculty to ensure the greatest possible academic integrity in assessing students' achievement in courses delivered at a distance. A high standard of quality and integrity can be achieved through the exam design, a variety in types of assessment exercises, the protection of the exam from redistribution, and ultimately, the requirement of proctored exams where necessary.
UW Outreach School continues to explore technological, pedagogical, and policy strategies toward the goal of enhancing the security and integrity of student assessments.
Academic integrity in online exams can be enhanced by wise exam design and controlled management of the examination experience.
|Collaborative exam taking||Limit time; randomize questions; review times students take exam; review exam statistics for common incorrect answers; written, application, or problem solving questions; proctoring|
|Prohibited materials (books, notes)||Limit time; questions requiring conclusions, interpretation, problem solving, etc.; proctoring|
|Downloading or capturing exam for redistribution||ExamGuard; question pools; withhold correct answers from graded exam|
|Unauthorized test takers||Proctoring; course design incorporating multiple assessments|
Adkins, J., Kenkel, C, & Lo Lim, C. (2005). Deterrents to online academic dishonesty. The Journal of Learning in Higher Education, 1(1), 17-22. Retrieved May 2, 2011 from http://jwpress.com/JLHE/Issues/v1i1/Deterrents%20to%20Online%20Academic%20Dishonesty.pdf
Brightwell, R., Daniel, J.H., & Stewart, A. (2004). Evaluation: Is an open book examination easier? Bioscience Education e-Journal, 3(3), 2004.
Christe, B. (2003). Designing online courses to discourage dishonesty. Educause Quarterly, 4,54-58.
Crehan, K. (1993). Use of an inclusive option and the optimal number of options for multiple-choice items. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 53(1), 241-247.
Frary,R. (1991). The none-of-the-above option: An empirical study. Applied Measurement in Education 4(2), 115-124.
Fuhrman, M. (1996). Developing good multiple-choice tests and test questions. Journal of Geoscience Education 44(4), 379-384.
Hricko, M., & Howell, S. (2006). Online assessment and measurement: Foundations and challenges. Hershey, PA: Information Science Publishing.
Khare, A., & Lam, H. (2008). Assessing student achievement and progress with online examinations: Some pedagogical and technical issues. International Journal on E-Learning 7(3). 383-402.
Krovitz, G.E. (2007). Ways to prevent cheating on online exams. Educator’s Voice, 8(6). Retrieved May 2, 2011, from http://www.ecollege.com/Newsletter/EducatorsVoice/EducatorsVoice-Vol8Iss6.learn
Olt, M. (2002). Ethics and distance education: Strategies for minimizing academic dishonesty in online assessment. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 5(3). Retrieved December 14, 2007 from http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/fall53/olt53.html
Rocco, S. (2007). Online assessment and evaluation. New Directions in Adult and Continuing Education, 113, 75-86.
Rohrer, E. (2006). Creating quality multiple choice questions. Educator’s Voice, 7(5). Retrieved January 30, 2008, from http://www.ecollege.com/Newsletter/EducatorsVoice/EducatorsVoice-Vol7Iss5.learn
Simpson, D., Cohen, E. (1985, March). Problem solving questions for multiple choice tests: A method for analyzing the cognitive demands of items. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED259033.pdf.
Talmir, P. (1991). Multiple choice items: How to gain the most out of them. Biochemical Education, 19(4), 188-191.
Waite, J. (2007). Weekly quizzing really works! Online software makes it easy. Tech Directions, 66(7), 16-21.
Williams, J.B., Wong, A. (2009). The efficacy of final examinations: A comparative study of closed-book, invigilated exams and open-book, open-web exams. British Journal of Educational Technology, 40(2), 227-236.