Ecologists study environmental systems.
Environmental refers to the natural world rather than the things made by humans. However, the effects and impacts humans have on the natural world are a definite focus of these studies.
Systems refers to the fact that ecology is not interested in the individual components found in the natural world in isolation, but rather in how those parts interact
Environmental systems are made up of:
Biotic factors which are the living components of an ecosystem.
Producers are organisms that create their own energy. Examples are plants and photosynthesizing bacteria.
|Consumers are organisms that eat producers or other consumers. Herbivores eat producers, carnivores eat other consumers and omnivores eat both producers and other consumers.||
Decomposers are organisms that consume plant and animal matter that is no longer living. Examples are earthworms, bacteria and fungi.
Abiotic factors which are the nonliving components of a system that affect the living organisms.
Abiotic factors are grouped into four main categories.
Location: latitude, size of continent, distance from water
Bodies of water
Topography: elevation, slope
Air pressure Wind
Rainfall and wind
(*of, produced by or influenced by the soil)
Soil composition: clay, loam, sand, etc.
Minerals, salts and trace elements
Water holding capacity
Nitrogen and their cycles
Ecologists also study the distribution of species in the landscape.
Questions they investigate include:
Will there be areas where the species is more common and areas where it is rare?
Is there an edge created by some environmental gradient?
Will species distribution change through time?
Will species distribution depend on spatial scale?
Different types of ecologist might be interested in different questions in the same environment.