AN INTRODUCTION TO ISLAM

FOR THE EQUALITY STATE

 

 

SETH WARD

University of Wyoming

 

            

 

 “HADITH OF  GABRIEL

Al-Bukhari, Sahih. The Book of Faith (Kitab Al-Iman)

Chapter 1: Book 001, Number 0001:

Umar ibn al-Khattab, told me: One day we were sitting in the company of Allah's Apostle (peace be upon him) when there appeared before us a man dressed in pure white clothes, his hair extraordinarily black. There were no signs of travel on him. None amongst us recognized him. At last he sat with the Apostle (peace be upon him) He knelt before him placed his palms on his thighs and said:

Muhammad, inform me about al-Islam (submission to God).

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: Al-Islam implies that you testify that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah, and you establish prayer, pay Zakat, observe the fast of Ramadan, and perform pilgrimage to the (House) if you are solvent enough (to bear the expense of) the journey.

He (the inquirer) said: You have told the truth.

He (Umar ibn al-Khattab) said: It amazed us that he would put the question and then he would himself verify the truth.

He (the inquirer) said: Inform me about Iman (faith).

He (the Holy Prophet) replied: That you affirm your faith in Allah, in His angels, in His Books, in His Apostles, in the Day of Judgment, and you affirm your faith in the Divine Decree about good and evil.

He (the inquirer) said: You have told the truth.

He (the inquirer) again said: Inform me about al-Ihsan (performance of good deeds).

He (the Holy Prophet) said: That you worship Allah as if you are seeing Him, for though you don't see Him, He, verily, sees you.

He (the enquirer) again said: Inform me about the hour (of the Doom).

He (the Holy Prophet) remarked: One who is asked knows no more than the one who is inquiring (about it).

He (the inquirer) said: Tell me some of its indications.

He (the Holy Prophet) said: That the slave-girl will give birth to her mistress and master, that you will find barefooted, destitute goat-herds vying with one another in the construction of magnificent buildings.

He (the narrator, Umar ibn al-Khattab) said: Then he (the inquirer) went on his way but I stayed with him (the Holy Prophet) for a long while. He then, said to me: Umar, do you know who this inquirer was? I replied: Allah and His Apostle knows best. He (the Holy Prophet) remarked: He was Gabriel (the angel). He came to you in order to instruct you in matters of religion.

 

 

 

An Introduction to Islam

 

Islam is the religion of about one fifth of the world's people, and is often considered the fastest growing religion in America. A brief presentation on Islam should examine its practices and beliefs, its Scripture and its spirituality, its phenomenal growth in America and the political and religious goals which motivate activist adherents in the Middle East and elsewhere. Muslims define the meaning of Islam as submission to Allah's will. A believer is a "Muslim," the religion is "Islam." "Muslim" or "Islamic" are adjectives, for example, "Islamic practices" or "Muslim beliefs."

 

Believing/ Behaving/Belonging
Allah/ Qur’an and Muhammad/ Ummah

 

The Practice and Theology of Islam: Five Pillars and Six Beliefs.

1. Shahada: Testimony that there is no God but God/ Muhammad is the Messenger of God.

2. Salat: Prayer five times a day--Noon, late afternoon, evening, night, dawn. [Prayer Times: http://www.islamicity.com/PrayerTimes/prayertimes.asp?region=namerica]

3. Zakat: alms from one's wealth.

4. Sawm:Fasting during Ramadan.

5. Hajj: Pilgrimage to Mecca once in a lifetime.

q       Six beliefs: God, Angels, Prophets, Books, Judgement, Decree.

 

Muhammad: Muhammad lived approx. 570-632; First Revelation: about 610. Emigration from Mecca to Medina: 622. "Farewell" Pilgrimage to Mecca, 632. Muhammad's practice (“sunnah”) is known from the Hadith: Muhammad's act, word, silence.

 

Qur'an: 114 chapters, Meccan and Madinan. Sermonic not narrative. Stories of Prophets, support for poor. Legal material ususally Medinan. Uthmanic Recension. God's uncreated Speech. Qur’an memorized in Arabic.

 

Law: shari’a. revealed law” fiqh “jurisprudence” fatwa “response/legal opinion” mufti “one eligible to give a response.” Four sources of Law: Qur’an, sunna, qiyas (analogy), ijma(consensus).

 

Religious Calendar: Fridays-Jum‘a (gathering for prayer), not Sabbath; Ramadan and Id al-Fitr, Pilgrimage and Id al-Adha. Shia: Ashura and Arba‘in.  http://moonsighting.com/2005usa.html

 

Caliphate: Muhammad’s successors (khalifa “caliph”) were Abu Bakr, ‘Umar and ‘Uthman. Muhammad’s daughter Fatimah married his cousin ‘Ali, who was the fourth Caliph. Succession dispute underlies divergence between Sunnis and Shi’is; Ali’s descendants are the Shi‘i imams. Caliphal title Amir al-Mu’minin “Commander of the Faithful.” Rarely had real power after 9th century. Umayyads 661-750, Abbasids in Iraq 750-1258, continue in Cairo to 1517, Ottoman Caliphate ended 1924.

Islam in America: 1000 Mosques in 1994 Immigrant/African American Arab, Middle East (Turkish/Persian), African, South Asian, East Asian. Students, esp. University / Community / Prison

 

The First Chapter of the Qur'an:
In the Name of Allah, the Merciful, the Compassionate! Praise belongs to God, the Lord of the Worlds. The All Merciful, the Compassionate,
Master of the Day of Judgment. Thee only do we serve, to Thee alone do we pray for help. Guide us on the Straight Path. The Path of those whom Thou has graced; Not of those against whom Thou art wrathful, nor of those who are astray.

 

Qur’an

[2.190] And fight in the way of Allah with those who fight with you, and do not exceed the limits, surely Allah does not love those who exceed the limits. [2.191] And kill them wherever you find them, and drive them out from whence they drove you out, and persecution is severer than slaughter, and do not fight with them at the Sacred Mosque until they fight with you in it, but if they do fight you, then slay them; such is the recompense of the unbelievers…. [2.193] And fight with them until there is no persecution, and religion should be only for Allah, but if they desist, then there should be no hostility except against the oppressors.

 

[2.256] There is no compulsion in religion; truly the right way has become clearly distinct from error; therefore, whoever disbelieves in the Shaitan and believes in Allah he indeed has laid hold on the firmest handle, which shall not break off, and Allah is Hearing, Knowing. (“No compulsion” verse)

 

[5.51] O you who believe! do not take the Jews and the Christians for friends; they are friends of each other; and whoever amongst you takes them for a friend, then surely he is one of them; surely Allah does not guide the unjust people. [5.52] But you will see those in whose hearts is a disease hastening towards them, saying: We fear lest a calamity should befall us; but it may be that Allah will bring the victory or a punishment from Himself, so that they shall be regretting on account of what they hid in their souls.

 

[5.82] Certainly you will find the most violent of people in enmity for those who believe (to be) the Jews and those who are polytheists, and you will certainly find the nearest in friendship to those who believe (to be) those who say: We are Christians; this is because there are priests and monks among them and because they do not behave proudly.

 

[9.5] So when the sacred months have passed away, then slay the idolaters wherever you find them, and take them captives and besiege them and lie in wait for them in every ambush, then if they repent and keep up prayer and pay the poor-rate, leave their way free to them; surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.(The Sword verse)

 

[9.29] Fight those who do not believe in Allah, nor in the latter day, nor do they prohibit what Allah and His Apostle have prohibited, nor follow the religion of truth, out of those who have been given the Book, until they pay the tax in acknowledgment of superiority and they are in a state of subjection. [9.30] And the Jews say: Uzair is the son of Allah; and the Christians say: The Messiah is the son of Allah; these are the words of their mouths; they imitate the saying of those who disbelieved before; may Allah destroy them; how they are turned away! [9.31] They have taken their doctors of law and their monks for lords besides Allah, and (also) the Messiah son of Mariam and they were enjoined that they should serve one God only, there is no god but He; far from His glory be what they set up (with Him).



Significant Dates in Islamic History

 


570-632 Muhammad

  570   “Day of the Elephant” Traditional date for Muhammad’s birth

  595   Muhammad marries Khadija

  610   First Revelation

  622   Hijra and Year One of the Islamic Calendar

  624   The Battle of Badr – Muslims defeat the Quraysh

  630   Pilgrimage to Mecca

  632   According to tradition, final pilgrimage; Muhammad’s death. 

632-661 "Righteous Caliphs"

632-32  Abu Bakr

634-644 Umar

644-656 Uthman

656-661 "Caliphate of Ali," better characterized as 1st Civil War

656   Battle of the Camel

657   Conflict at Siffin settled through arbitration

661-750 Umayyad Dynasty

  680   Death of Muhammad's grandson Husayn; start of classical Shi’ism

  697   Islamicate reforms in coinage, government

  711   Muslims reach Spain and the Indus River in what is now Pakistan

750-1258 Abbasid Caliphate

  762    Founding of Baghdad

  c. 800 Harun al-Rashid (immortalized in the Thousand and One Nights)

  813-833 Al-Ma’mun (AH 198-215)

By the 10th Century the Caliph is no longer a unified political leader; separate Caliphates under various religious leaders appear. 

  909  Fatimids (Shi’ite faction) proclaim a Caliphate in Tunisia

  929  Umayyad Al-Nasr proclaims himself Caliph in Spain

   945 Buyids enter Baghdad, leader proclaimed Amir al-Umara Mu’izz al-Dawla.

969     Founding of Cairo by Fatimids
971   Al-Azhar (university) founded in Cairo

  1050  Traditional conversion to Islam of Mandingo King in Mali (in Africa)

  1055 Seljuks enter Baghdad, ending Buyid dynasty.

  1071  Battle of Manzikert; Seljuk Turks begin to enter Anatolia (modern day Turkey)

  1085  Fall of Toledo – Catholics retake Spain

1099  Catholic Crusaders capture Jerusalem

1175-1203      Muhammad Ghori expands Islamic rule in India

1171  Saladin ends Fatimid Dynasty.

  1187  Battle of Hittin; within two years the Muslims retake Jerusalem

 

Latter Middle Ages

1250  Mamluk Sultanate established in Egypt 

1258   Mongols conquer Baghdad; brief introduction of Buddhism in Persia

  1291  End of Christian control of Acre, return of Islam to dominance throughout the Holy Land

1297   Conversion of Il-Khan to Islam; Islam once again dominant in Persia

1345  First Ottoman campaigns in Europe: 1389 1st Battle of Kosovo.

 

Ottoman Rise and Fall, “Gunpowder Empires”

1453   Muhammad II conquers Constantinople for the Ottomans

1492  Muslims expelled from Spain

1517  Ottomans conquer Egypt

1575   Height of Ottoman Empire, which now includes parts of Asia, Europe, and Africa

1699  Treaty of Carlewitz

1700's Rise of Wahhabi movement to reform Islam (separatist Sunni sect)

 

The Modern Era

1798   Napoleon invades Egypt (expelled in 1801 by combined Ottoman and British troops)

1805   Muhammad Ali establishes an independent Islamic state in Egypt

1917 Ottoman Empire ends after World War I

1924         Caliphate abolished in Turkey (severing “last link” to the divine polity founded by Muhammad)

1928  Muslim Brotherhood founded (Sunni reform movement)

  1948-49, 1956, 1967, 1973   Arab-Israeli Wars

  1979 (=Hijra Year 1400), Islamic (Shi’ite) Revolution in Iran led by Ayatollah Khomeini; Russian invasion of Afghanistan, Sadat’s Peace Plan, (1978: Orientalism)


---------------Population—c. 1999 (?)---------------

Country Name,Total Pop., %, No. of Muslims http://islamicweb.com/?folder=begin&file=population (w/editing of format and sorting)

 


Indonesia

206,611,600

95

196,281,020

India

952,107,694

14

133,295,077

China

1,210,004,956

11

133,100,545

Pakistan

129,275,660

97

125,397,390

Bangladesh

123,062,800

85

104,603,380

Nigeria

103,912,489

75

77,934,367

Iran

66,094,264

99

65,433,321

Turkey

62,484,478

99.8

62,359,509

Egypt

63,575,107

94

59,760,601

Ethiopia

57,171,662

65

37,161,580

Morocco

29,779,156

98.7

29,392,027

Algeria

29,183,032

99

28,891,202

Sudan

31,547,543

85

26,815,412

Russia

148,178,487

18

26,672,127

Afghanistan

22,664,136

100

22,664,136

Iraq

21,422,292

97

20,779,623

Uzbekistan

23,418,381

88

20,608,175

Saudi Arabia

19,409,058

100

19,409,058

Tanzania

29,058,470

65

18,888,006

Syria

15,608,648

90

14,047,783

Yemen

13,483,178

99

13,348,346

Philippines

74,480,848

14

10,427,319

Malaysia

19,962,893

52

10,380,704

United States

266,476,278

3.75

9,992,860

Somalia

9,639,151

100

9,639,151

Cote d'Ivoire

14,762,445

60

8,857,467

Tunisia

9,019,687

98

8,839,293

Mali

9,653,261

90

8,687,935

Kazakhstan

16,916,463

51.2

8,661,229

Senegal

9,092,749

95

8,638,112

Kenya

28,176,686

29.5

8,312,122

Niger

9,113,001

91

8,292,831

Thailand

58,851,357

14

8,239,190

Cameroon

14,261,557

55

7,843,856

Uganda

20,158,176

36

7,256,943

Azerbaijan

7,676,953

93.4

7,170,274

Guinea

7,411,981

95

7,041,382

Chad

6,976,845

85

5,930,318

Libya

5,445,436

100

5,445,436

Burkina Faso

10,623,323

50

5,311,662

Ghana

17,698,271

30

5,309,481

Mozambique

17,877,927

29

5,184,599

Tajikistan

5,916,373

85

5,028,917

Zaire

46,498,539

10

4,649,854

Burma

45,975,625

10

4,597,563

Romania

21,657,162

20

4,331,432

France

58,317,450

7

4,082,222

Jordan

4,212,152

95

4,001,544

Turkmenistan

4,149,283

87

3,609,876

Kyrgyzstan

4,529,648

76.1

3,447,062

Malawi

9,452,844

35

3,308,495

Sierra Leone

4,793,121

65

3,115,529

United Arab E.

3,057,337

96

2,935,044

Germany

83,536,115

3.4

2,840,228

Eritrea

3,427,883

80

2,742,306

Madagascar

13,670,507

20

2,734,101

Lebanon

3,776,317

70

2,643,422

Angola

10,342,899

25%

2,585,725

Togo

4,570,530

55

2,513,792

Albania

3,249,136

75%

2,436,852

Mauritania

2,336,048

100

2,336,048

Oman

2,186,548

100

2,186,548

Serbia/Monteneg

10,614,558

19

2,016,766

Central African R

3,274,426

55

1,800,934

Kuwait

1,950,047

89

1,735,542

Zimbabwe

11,271,314

15

1,690,697

Sri Lanka

18,553,074

9

1,669,777

United Kingdom

58,489,975

2.7

1,579,229

Zambia

9,159,072

15

1,373,861

Japan

125,449,703

1

1,254,497

Bulgaria

8,612,757

14

1,205,786

Burundi

5,943,057

20

1,188,611

Gambia

1,204,984

90

1,084,486

West Bank

1,427,741

75

1,070,806

Bosnia/Herzegov.

2,656,240

40

1,062,496

Brazil

162,661,214

0.6

1,000,000

Gaza Strip

923,940

98.7

911,929

Nepal

22,094,033

4

883,761

Benin

5,709,529

15

856,429

South Africa

41,743,459

     2

834,869

Guinea-Bissau

1,151,330

70

805,931

Israel

5,421,995

14

759,079

Argentina

34,672,997

2

693,460

Liberia

2,109,789

30

632,937

Macedonia

2,104,035

30

631,211

Bahrain

590,042

100

590,042

Singapore

3,396,924

17

577,477

Italy

57,460,274

1

574,603

Georgia

5,219,810

11

574,179

Qatar

547,761

100

547,761

Comoros

569,237

86

489,544

Netherlands

15,568,034

3

467,041

Djibouti

427,642

94

401,983

Canada

28,820,671

1.48

400,000

Australia

18,260,863

2.09

382,000

Congo

2,527,841

15

379,176

Sweden

9,800,000

3.6

320,000

Maldives

270,758

100

270,758

Cyprus

744,609

33

245,721

Western Sahara

222,631

100

222,631

Mauritius

1,140,256

19.5

222,350

Lesotho

1,970,781

10

197,078

Brunei

299,939

63

188,962

Greece

10,538,594

1.5

158,079

Trinidad &Tobago

1,272,385

12

152,686

Reunion

679,198

20

135,840

Suriname

436,418

25

109,105

Cambodia

10,861,218

1

108,612

Equatorial Guinea

431,282

25

107,821

Guyana

712,091

15

106,814

Panama

2,655,094

4

106,204

Swaziland

998,730

10

99,873

Mongolia

2,496,617

4

99,865

Mayotte

100,838

99

99,830

Bhutan

1,822,625

5

91,131

Fiji

782,381

11

86,062

Namibia

1,677,243

5

83,862

Botswana

1,477,630

5

73,882

Rwanda

6,853,359       

1

68,534

Norway

4,438,547

1.5

66,578

Hong Kong

6,305,413

1

63,054

Croatia

5,004,112

1.2

60,049

Malta

375,576

14

52,581

Slovenia

1,951,443

1

19,514

Gabon

1,172,798

1

11,728

Aruba

67,794

5

3,390

Gibraltar

28,765

8

2,301

Cocos (Keeling) Is.

609

57

347

Christmas Island

813

10

81

Antigua and Barbuda

65,647

n/a

 

                 


http://www.Adherents.com/ has the best information of this type; each statistic is referenced as to its source. I believe that the Islamicweb figures reflect the situation 1995-1999. Often the exact numbers given in this list reflect projections based on guesses about the percent of a total population that is Muslim, rather than an accurate count of a Muslim population. 



THE Qur’an ON TEMPLE, ISRAEL, JEWS AND CHRISTIANS

SURAH 5 And remember when Moses said unto his people: O My People: Remember the bounties of God upon you when he raised prophets among you and made you kings and gave you what he hath not given to anyone else among the peoples. O my people, Enter the Holy Land (al-ard al-muqaddasah) which God has assigned you (katabaallahu lakum) and turn not your backs.  (5:20-21)

 

SURAH 17: The Children of Israel

 [17.1] Glory be to Him Who made His servant to go on a night from the Sacred Mosque to the remote mosque of which We have blessed the precincts, so that We may show to him some of Our signs; surely He is the Hearing, the Seeing. [17.2] And We gave Musa the Book and made it a guidance to the children of Israel, saying: Do not take a protector besides Me; [17.3] The offspring of those whom We bore with Nuh; surely he was a grateful servant. [17.4] And We had made known to the children of Israel in the Book: Most certainly you will make mischief in the land twice, and most certainly you will behave insolently with great insolence. [17.5] So when the promise for the first of the two came, We sent over you Our servants, of mighty prowess, so they went to and fro among the houses, and it was a promise to be accomplished. [17.6] Then We gave you back the turn to prevail against them, and aided you with wealth and children and made you a numerous band. [17.7] If you do good, you will do good for your own souls, and if you do evil, it shall be for them. So when the second promise came (We raised another people) that they may bring you to grief and that they may enter the Temple as they entered it the first time, and that they might destroy whatever they gained ascendancy over with utter destruction. [17.8] It may be that your Lord will have mercy on you, and if you again return We too will return, and We have made hell a prison for the unbelievers.

 

[17.102] He said: Truly you know that none but the Lord of the heavens and the earth has sent down these as clear proof and most surely I believe you, O Pharoah, to be given over to perdition. [17.103] So he desired to destroy them out of the earth, but We drowned him and those with him all together; [17.104] And We said to the Israelites after him: Dwell in the land: and when the promise of the next life shall come to pass, we will bring you both together in judgment. [17.110] Say: Call upon Allah or call upon, the Beneficent God; whichever you call upon, He has the best names; and do not utter your prayer with a very raised voice nor be silent with regard to it, and seek a way between these. [17.111] And say: (All) praise is due to Allah, Who has not taken a son and Who has not a partner in the kingdom, and Who has not a helper to save Him from disgrace; and proclaim His greatness magnifying (Him).

 

Surah 7: [7.128] Musa [Moses] said to his people: Ask help from Allah and be patient; surely the land is Allah's; He causes such of His servants to inherit it as He pleases, and the end is for those who guard (against evil). [7.129] They said: We have been persecuted before you came to us and since you have come to us. He said: It may be that your Lord will destroy your enemy and make you rulers in the land, then He will see how you act…. [7.132] And they said: Whatever sign you may bring to us to charm us with it-- we will not believe in you. [7.133] Therefore We sent upon them widespread death, and the locusts and the lice and the frog and the blood, clear signs; but they behaved haughtily and they were a guilty people. [7.134] And when the plague fell upon them, they said: O Musa! pray for us to your Lord as He has promised with you, if you remove the plague from us, we will certainly believe in you and we will certainly send away with you the children of Israel. [7.135] But when We removed the plague from them till a term which they should attain lo! they broke (the promise). [7.136] Therefore We inflicted retribution on them and drowned them in the sea because they rejected Our signs and were heedless of them.  [7.137] And We made the people who were deemed weak to inherit the eastern lands and the western ones which We had blessed; and the good word of your Lord was fulfilled in the children of Israel because they bore up (sufferings) patiently; and We utterly destroyed what Pharoah and his people had wrought and what they built.

 


From Islamic Tradition: Stories of Muhammad

Seth Ward, University of Wyoming

THE FIRST REVELATION

Narrated 'Aisha: (the mother of the faithful believers)

The commencement of the Divine Inspiration to Allah's Apostle was in the form of good dreams which came true like bright day light, and then the love of seclusion was bestowed upon him. He used to go in seclusion in the cave of Hira where he used to worship (Allah alone) continuously for many days before his desire to see his family. He used to take with him the journey food for the stay and then come back to (his wife) Khadija to take his food like-wise again till suddenly the Truth descended upon him while he was in the cave of Hira. The angel came to him and asked him to read. The Prophet replied, "I do not know how to read.

The Prophet added, "The angel caught me (forcefully) and pressed me so hard that I could not bear it any more. He then released me and again asked me to read and I replied, 'I do not know how to read.' Thereupon he caught me again and pressed me a second time till I could not bear it any more. He then released me and again asked me to read but again I replied, 'I do not know how to read (or what shall I read)?' Thereupon he caught me for the third time and pressed me, and then released me and said, 'Read in the name of your Lord, who has created (all that exists) has created man from a clot. Read! And your Lord is the Most Generous." (96.1, 96.2, 96.3) Then Allah's Apostle returned with the Inspiration and with his heart beating severely. Then he went to Khadija bint Khuwailid and said, "Cover me! Cover me!" They covered him till his fear was over and after that he told her everything that had happened and said, "I fear that something may happen to me." Khadija replied, "Never! By Allah, Allah will never disgrace you. You keep good relations with your Kith and kin, help the poor and the destitute, serve your guests generously and assist the deserving calamity-afflicted ones."

Khadija then accompanied him to her cousin Waraqa bin Naufal bin Asad bin 'Abdul 'Uzza, who, during the PreIslamic Period became a Christian and used to write the writing with Hebrew letters. He would write from the Gospel in Hebrew as much as Allah wished him to write. He was an old man and had lost his eyesight. Khadija said to Waraqa, "Listen to the story of your nephew, O my cousin!" Waraqa asked, "O my nephew! What have you seen?" Allah's Apostle described whatever he had seen. Waraqa said, "This is the same one who keeps the secrets (angel Gabriel) whom Allah had sent to Moses. I wish I were young and could live up to the time when your people would turn you out." Allah's Apostle asked, "Will they drive me out?" Waraqa replied in the affirmative and said, "Anyone (man) who came with something similar to what you have brought was treated with hostility; and if I should remain alive till the day when you will be turned out then I would support you strongly." But after a few days Waraqa died and the Divine Inspiration was also paused for a while.

Narrated Jabir bin 'Abdullah Al-Ansari while talking about the period of pause in revelation reporting the speech of the Prophet "While I was walking, all of a sudden I heard a voice from the sky. I looked up and saw the same angel who had visited me at the cave of Hira' sitting on a chair between the sky and the earth. I got afraid of him and came back home and said, 'Wrap me (in blankets).' And then Allah revealed the following Holy Verses (of Quran):

'O you (i.e. Muhammad)! wrapped up in garments!' Arise and warn (the people against Allah's Punishment),... up to 'and desert the idols.' (74.1-5) After this the revelation started coming strongly, frequently and regularly."

NIGHT JOURNEY TO HEAVEN, AND PRAYER MADE OBLIGATORY

It is narrated on the authority of Anas b. Malik that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: I was brought al-Buraq Who is an animal white and long, larger than a donkey but smaller than a mule, who would place his hoof a distance equal to the range of version. I mounted it and came to the Temple (Bait Maqdis in Jerusalem), then tethered it to the ring used by the prophets. I entered the mosque and prayed two rak'ahs in it, and then came out and Gabriel brought me a vessel of wine and a vessel of milk. I chose the milk, and Gabriel said: You have chosen the natural thing. Then he took me to heaven. Gabriel then asked the (gate of heaven) to be opened and he was asked who he was. He replied: Gabriel. He was again asked: Who is with you? He (Gabriel) said: Muhammad. It was said: Has he been sent for? Gabriel replied: He has indeed been sent for. And (the door of the heaven) was opened for us and lo! we saw Adam. He welcomed me and prayed for my good. Then we ascended to the second heaven. Gabriel (peace be upon him) (asked the door of heaven to be opened), and he was asked who he was. He answered: Gabriel; and was again asked: Who is with you? He replied: Muhammad. It was said: Has he been sent for? He replied: He has indeed been sent for. The gate was opened. When I entered 'Isa b. Maryam and Yahya b. Zakariya (peace be upon both of them), cousins from the maternal side. welcomed me and prayed for my good Then I was taken to the third heaven and Gabriel asked for the opening (of the door). He was asked: Who are you? He replied: Gabriel. He was (again) asked: Who is with you? He replied Muhammad (may peace be upon him). It was said: Has he been sent for? He replied He has indeed been sent for. (The gate) was opened for us and I saw Yusuf (peace of Allah be upon him) who had been given half of (world) beauty. He welcomed me prayed for my well-being. Then he ascended with us to the fourth heaven. Gabriel (peace be upon him) asked for the (gate) to be opened, and it was said: Who is he? He replied: Gabriel. It was (again) said: Who is with you? He said: Muhammad. It was said: Has he been sent for? He replied: He has indeed been sent for. The (gate) was opened for us, and lo! Idris was there. He welcomed me and prayed for my well-being (About him) Allah, the Exalted and the Glorious, has said:" We elevated him (Idris) to the exalted position" (Qur'an xix. 57). Then he ascended with us to the fifth heaven and Gabriel asked for the (gate) to be opened. It was said: Who is he? He replied Gabriel. It was (again) said: Who is with thee? He replied: Muhammad. It was said Has he been sent for? He replied: He has indeed been sent for. (The gate) was opened for us and then I was with Harun (Aaron-peace of Allah be upon him). He welcomed me prayed for my well-being. Then I was taken to the sixth heaven. Gabriel (peace be upon him) asked for the door to be opened. It was said: Who is he? He replied: Gabriel. It was said: Who is with thee? He replied: Muhammad. It was said: Has he been sent for? He replied: He has indeed been sent for. (The gate) was opened for us and there I was with Musa (Moses peace be upon him) He welcomed me and prayed for my well-being. Then I was taken up to the seventh heaven. Gabriel asked the (gate) to be opened. It was said: Who is he? He said: Gabriel It was said. Who is with thee? He replied: Muhammad (may peace be upon him.) It was said: Has he been sent for? He replied: He has indeed been sent for. (The gate) was opened for us and there I found Ibrahim (Abraham peace be upon him) reclining against the Bait-ul-Ma'mur and there enter into it seventy thousand angels every day, never to visit (this place) again. Then I was taken to Sidrat-ul-Muntaha whose leaves were like elephant ears and its fruit like big earthenware vessels. And when it was covered by the Command of Allah, it underwent such a change that none amongst the creation has the power to praise its beauty.

Then Allah revealed to me a revelation and He made obligatory for me fifty prayers every day and night. Then I went down to Moses (peace be upon him) and he said: What has your Lord enjoined upon your Ummah? I said: Fifty prayers. He said: Return to thy Lord and beg for reduction (in the number of prayers), for your community shallnot be able to bear this burden. as I have put to test the children of Isra'il and tried them (and found them too weak to bear such a heavy burden). He (the Holy Prophet) said: I went back to my Lord and said: My Lord, make things lighter for my Ummah. (The Lord) reduced five prayers for me. I went down to Moses and said. (The Lord) reduced five (prayers) for me, He said: Verily thy Ummah shall not be able to bear this burden; return to thy Lord and ask Him to make things lighter. I then kept going back and forth between my Lord Blessed and Exalted and Moses, till He said: There are five prayers every day and night. O Muhammad, each being credited as ten, so that makes fifty prayers. He who intends to do a good deed and does not do it will have a good deed recorded for him; and if he does it, it will be recorded for him as ten; whereas he who intends to do an evil deed and does not do, it will not be recorded for him; and if he does it, only one evil deed will be recorded. I then came down and when I came to Moses and informed him, he said: Go back to thy Lord and ask Him to make things lighter. Upon this the Messenger of Allah remarked: I returned to my Lord until I felt ashamed before Him.

http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/reference/searchhadith.html

“HADITH OF  GABRIEL

Al-Bukhari, Sahih. The Book of Faith (Kitab Al-Iman)

Chapter 1: Book 001, Number 0001:

Umar ibn al-Khattab, told me: One day we were sitting in the company of Allah's Apostle (peace be upon him) when there appeared before us a man dressed in pure white clothes, his hair extraordinarily black. There were no signs of travel on him. None amongst us recognized him.

At last he sat with the Apostle (peace be upon him) He knelt before him placed his palms on his thighs and said: Muhammad, inform me about al-Islam (submission to God).

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: Al-Islam implies that you testify that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah, and you establish prayer, pay Zakat, observe the fast of Ramadan, and perform pilgrimage to the (House) if you are solvent enough (to bear the expense of) the journey.

He (the inquirer) said: You have told the truth.

He (Umar ibn al-Khattab) said: It amazed us that he would put the question and then he would himself verify the truth.

He (the inquirer) said: Inform me about Iman (faith).

He (the Holy Prophet) replied: That you affirm your faith in Allah, in His angels, in His Books, in His Apostles, in the Day of Judgment, and you affirm your faith in the Divine Decree about good and evil.

He (the inquirer) said: You have told the truth.

He (the inquirer) again said: Inform me about al-Ihsan (performance of good deeds).

He (the Holy Prophet) said: That you worship Allah as if you are seeing Him, for though you don't see Him, He, verily, sees you.

He (the enquirer) again said: Inform me about the hour (of the Doom).

He (the Holy Prophet) remarked: One who is asked knows no more than the one who is inquiring (about it).

He (the inquirer) said: Tell me some of its indications.

He (the Holy Prophet) said: That the slave-girl will give birth to her mistress and master, that you will find barefooted, destitute goat-herds vying with one another in the construction of magnificent buildings.

He (the narrator, Umar ibn al-Khattab) said: Then he (the inquirer) went on his way but I stayed with him (the Holy Prophet) for a long while. He then, said to me: Umar, do you know who this inquirer was? I replied: Allah and His Apostle knows best. He (the Holy Prophet) remarked: He was Gabriel (the angel). He came to you in order to instruct you in matters of religion.