What is reform?

Reformers adopted change in institutions but found that these had unintended ramifications.

Internal vs. external groups.


Wahhabi reform


Egyptian reform


Napoleon- 1798  (Background: British took French colonies in India in 1763).

British sunk Napoleon’s navy at Abu Kir. Anglo-Ottoman expedition and treaty in 1801 ended Napoleonic rule. Last British troops left in 1801.


Showed Ottoman weakness.

Sparked competition over Egypt

Weakened Mamluk infrastructure.




Muhammad Ali (Mehmet Ali)

Albanian mercenary

1769? -1849

1805-emerged as leader

1811-Massacred Mamluks

Seized waqfs, private land

Built irrigation systems, modernized agriculture

Built schools and infrastructure: Medicine, engineering, military training, Arabic press.


Extended Egyptian control—Ibrahim Pasha marched into Palestine. Controlled the Holy Places (took them back from the Wahhabis).


Ismail Pasha 1863-1879: Refashioned Alexandria and Cairo, railroads, Suez Canal opened 1869, representative assembly, constitution etc.  Ran up £100M debt—induced British and French to take over control of various ministries. 1876.





Ottoman reform


Nizam-i cedid Selim III 1789-1807

—new drafting system. Local forces drafted—perhaps model for Mehmet Ali or vice versa. He was deposed by the ieni çeri (janissaries)


Mahmud II r. 1808-1839


--Westernizing reforms must permeate all aspects of Ottoman life

--Reformed institutions must destroy those replaced

--Reform must be planned and coordinated by leadership.


1826: destroyed the Janissaries and the Bektashiya Sufi order.


1829: Greeks won independence in Morea.

Russians advanced in Black Sea area, 1820s, Ibrahim Pasha in Egypt and Syria 1830s.

1833: treaty of Hunkar Iskelesi. 1838: British-Ottoman treaty


Abdul Mejid 1839-1861.

Hatt-i Sherif  1839  Noble Rescript of the Rose Chamber

1848: European revolutions included a Romanian revolt.

1853-1856-Crimean War

1856: The Treaty of Paris (ending the Crimean War) guaranteed "the Independence and the Territorial Integrity of the Ottoman Empire".

1856: Hatt-I Humayun Imperial Rescript


            Millets equalized and reorganized, Landowning reform, codification of laws. “Full membership” in Concert of Nations


Abdul Aziz r. 1861-1876


1875: Russians foment rebellion in Slavic Orthodox areas.

1877-1878 Russo-Turkish War




Nader Shah d. 1747

Qajar dynasty 1794-1925


Babi uprising


Bahaullah –exiled to Baghdad



12 Rise of Nationalism


“The rhetoric of nationalism often confuses the Arab nation with the Islamic umma  as when an Arab nationalist cause is termed a jihad. 185.


European ideas about nationalism began to percolate into the Ottoman Empire. In some cases they were mixed with religious ideas (Armenians and Greeks) or with national language (Persians and Turks)- although Goldschmidt refers to the latter in religious terms.


Egyptian Nationalism

Dynasty of Muhammad Ali

Khedive Ismail—we already met him in previous chapter.

Verdi commissioned to write Aida. http://www.classical.net/music/comp.lst/works/verdi/aida/


Gloria all’Egitto

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bn76WxY5zXM Aida – triumphal march with Elephants!


Schools, telegraph, railroads, law courts, Suez Canal.


Dual Financial Control: France and Britain managed Egypt’s debt.

Jamal al-Din al-Afghani: teacher of Muhammad Abduh and Sa’d Zghlul

Constitution written.


But Tawfiq dismissed liberals, restored Dual Control


Ahmad Urabi: 1881: started an uprising, no match for the British—today seen as a Nationalist hero. Was he a protégé of Tawfiq? Of the Ottomans?

End result as strengthened British control.

Evelyn Baring (Lord Cromer, 1841-1917) consul general of Great Britain in Egypt


1885-1898: Sudan under Mahdi’s regime.

1904: demarcated line with Ottomans

1906 incident spurs Mustafa Kamil to activism, Forms Nationalist party 1907.





Ottomans. Turks, Pan Islam

Abdulaziz deposed March, 1876, Murad Pasha rules until August 1876 and is deposed.

1876-Midhat Pasha’s New constitution promulgated by Abdulhamid II (r 1876-1909)

Suspended constitution 1878, reinstated it in 1908

New Ottomans

Young Turks

Committee for Union and Progress. İttihad ve Terakki Cemiyeti


German interest in Ottomans and especially in Arab provinces to counteract British and French interest. 1898: Kaiser Wilhelm II comes to Syria, Palestine and Lebanon. Eventually, CUP entered war on Central Powers side.


            Goldschmidt: Austria annexed Bosnia, Bulgaria declared independence, Crete rebelled, all 1908.

Italy invaded Tripolitania 1911.

Russia encouraged Bulgaria and Serbia to attack Macedonia in 1912

Albania became independent in 1913.

CUP won election in 1912-by bribery and corruption.

Triumvirate of Young Turk leaders:

            Enver Pasha http://www.firstworldwar.com/bio/enver.htm

            Mehmet Talaat Pasha 1878-1921 http://www.firstworldwar.com/bio/talaat.htm

Ahmed Djemal Pasha (1872-1922) http://www.firstworldwar.com/bio/djemal.htm


Pan Turkism “Pan Turanism” –tried to link into Russian persecution of Turkic Muslims in Russia, Turkestan (“Former Soviet Union Central Asian Republics”) and Azarbaijan.




Coherent religiously, linguistically, even with a coherent geographical scope for many of the dynasties.

Revolution in 1906. Set up a parliament but Britain and Russia divided Persia up in 1907.


These movements were largely failures but their leaders are venerated today!