What is reform?
Reformers adopted change in institutions but found that these had unintended ramifications.
Internal vs. external groups.
(Background: British took French colonies in
British sunk Napoleon’s navy at Abu Kir. Anglo-Ottoman expedition and treaty in 1801 ended Napoleonic rule. Last British troops left in 1801.
Showed Ottoman weakness.
Sparked competition over
Weakened Mamluk infrastructure.
Muhammad Ali (Mehmet Ali)
1805-emerged as leader
Seized waqfs, private land
Built irrigation systems, modernized agriculture
Built schools and infrastructure: Medicine, engineering, military training, Arabic press.
Extended Egyptian control—Ibrahim Pasha marched into
Ismail Pasha 1863-1879: Refashioned Alexandria and
Nizam-i cedid Selim III 1789-1807
—new drafting system. Local forces drafted—perhaps model for Mehmet Ali or vice versa. He was deposed by the ieni çeri (janissaries)
Mahmud II r. 1808-1839
--Westernizing reforms must permeate all aspects of Ottoman life
--Reformed institutions must destroy those replaced
--Reform must be planned and coordinated by leadership.
1826: destroyed the Janissaries and the Bektashiya Sufi order.
1829: Greeks won independence in Morea.
Russians advanced in Black Sea area, 1820s, Ibrahim Pasha in
1833: treaty of Hunkar Iskelesi. 1838: British-Ottoman treaty
Abdul Mejid 1839-1861.
Hatt-i Sherif 1839 Noble Rescript of the Rose Chamber
1848: European revolutions included a Romanian revolt.
1856: The Treaty of Paris (ending the Crimean War)
1856: Hatt-I Humayun Imperial Rescript
Millets equalized and reorganized, Landowning reform, codification of laws. “Full membership” in Concert of Nations
Abdul Aziz r. 1861-1876
1875: Russians foment rebellion in Slavic Orthodox areas.
1877-1878 Russo-Turkish War
Nader Shah d. 1747
Qajar dynasty 1794-1925
Bahaullah –exiled to
12 Rise of Nationalism
“The rhetoric of nationalism often confuses the Arab nation with the Islamic umma as when an Arab nationalist cause is termed a jihad. 185.
European ideas about nationalism began to percolate into the
Khedive Ismail—we already met him in previous chapter.
Verdi commissioned to write Aida. http://www.classical.net/music/comp.lst/works/verdi/aida/
Schools, telegraph, railroads, law courts,
Dual Financial Control:
Jamal al-Din al-Afghani: teacher of Muhammad Abduh and Sa’d Zghlul
But Tawfiq dismissed liberals, restored Dual Control
Ahmad Urabi: 1881: started an uprising, no match for the British—today seen as a Nationalist hero. Was he a protégé of Tawfiq? Of the Ottomans?
End result as strengthened British control.
Evelyn Baring (Lord Cromer, 1841-1917) consul
1904: demarcated line with Ottomans
1906 incident spurs Mustafa Kamil to activism, Forms Nationalist party 1907.
Ottomans. Turks, Pan Islam
Abdulaziz deposed March, 1876, Murad Pasha rules until August 1876 and is deposed.
1876-Midhat Pasha’s New constitution promulgated by Abdulhamid II (r 1876-1909)
Suspended constitution 1878, reinstated it in 1908
German interest in Ottomans and especially in Arab provinces
to counteract British and French interest. 1898: Kaiser Wilhelm II comes to
CUP won election in 1912-by bribery and corruption.
Triumvirate of Young Turk leaders:
Enver Pasha http://www.firstworldwar.com/bio/enver.htm
Mehmet Talaat Pasha 1878-1921 http://www.firstworldwar.com/bio/talaat.htm
Ahmed Djemal Pasha (1872-1922) http://www.firstworldwar.com/bio/djemal.htm
Pan Turkism “Pan Turanism” –tried to link into Russian
persecution of Turkic Muslims in
Coherent religiously, linguistically, even with a coherent geographical scope for many of the dynasties.
Revolution in 1906.
Set up a parliament but
These movements were largely failures but their leaders are venerated today!