13: Arab Bitterness
Arab Identity: before the 20th century, there was little of this. Ottomans generally looked doen on pis arablar “dirty Arabs” a reference, moreover, to nomads more than to those who spoke Arabic. Some indications in the 19th century of an emerging sense of being an Arab, but no real coalescing of Arab identity.
¼ of Arab-speakers were Christians or other religious minorities.
Monophysite Christians (i.e. Armenian church, which rejects Chalcedon 451 CE determination that Jesus Christ is “Truly God and Truly Man” as two separate natures, instead maintaining that the divine and human natures are “inseparably combined in a complete humanity that was animated by a rational soul.” )
Maronites: Uniate church (like Ukrainian Catholics).
1875: Secret society formed in
Abd al-Rahman al-Kawakabi 1890s: introduced the idea of reviving the Arab Calipate.
Pan Islamic movement of 1860s had stressed the Caliphate; Ottomans began to emphasize that they were heirs to the Caliphal tradition. Abdulaziz r. 1861-1876 emphasized the title. SO did Abdulhamid.
1908: Young Turk Revolution: sent shockwaves as men in Arab capitals met to propose and elect representatives to the Majlis.
Ottoman Decentralization Party
1915: British contact Husayn, Sherif of Mecca. Became Amir in 1908.
Sharif Hussein bin Ali (1853-1931). Proclainmed himself King of the Lands of the Arabs and Caliph after the War. Ruled Hijaz until 1924.
And his 3 sons and their lines. Fourth Son: Amir Zeid.
Proclamation of Indpendence: http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/arabindependence_hussein.htm
Talal 1909-1972. r. 1951-52
Ghazi 1912-1939. King 1933-1939
Husein 1935-1999. r. 1952-1999
Feisal II b. 1935. r. 1939-1958
Deposed by Abd al-Karim Qassim
Zeid (1898-1970)—Son of Sharif
Hussain. Appointed head of the Royal House, but did
not rule as
Abdullah r. 1999-
Goldschmidt/Davidson: think that only
Jemal Pasha-his ruthlessness and executions aroused anger and Faisal became a convert to the “Arab” cause.
Ottomans defeated in 1918.
Arabs assumed the right to self determination was promised to them.
King Crane Commission
Great power meeting in
Modernizing Rulers in Independent States
Independent States arose from the conflict of World War I
1915: Armenian deportation; 1 million
killed. Armenian republic formed, but it was absorbed part by
1918 Young Turk leaders Enver, Jemal and Talat went into
French in Cilicia,
Italians in SW Antalya, Bolsheviks renounced claims
May 1919: Greeks land at
Summer 1919: Kemal elected by nationalist congress, and Turkish Nationalists favoring a republic win new parliamentary elections.
1920: M. Kemal
1920: Severes treaty: http://history.sandiego.edu/gen/WW1Pics/81584.jpg
Straits: Managed by Allies
Eastern Anatolia: Independent
Arabs get British and French Mandates
1920: Turks and Russians divided
France and Greeks fought deep inside
forces throw Greeks out of
1923: British give up and Sultan flees.
Oct. 29 1923: Republic declared.
1924: Abolished the Caliphate
Passed laws abolishing madrasa, Sufi orders, waqfs, Shaykh al-Islam, Imposed Swiss Code, Gave women equal rights in marriage, property and inheritance, discarded veil (Vote for women: 1934) ,
Fex forbidden. Ottoman calendar rejected, (and Julian!) for Gregorian. “Arab Time” changed for European time. Metric weights and measure adopted. Formal day of rest. 1928-expunged reference to Islam in constitution and changed alphabet to European-based. Family names adopted, old titles like Effendi and Pasha dropped in favor of Bay and Bayan.
1925: Kurds suppressed
Six Principles: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kemalism
Brief review of Turkish History. Islamist parties elected in 1995 and 2002.
No great romanticism about the Qajars.
1906 Constitution. 1907-Russians
and British split up
1921: Reza Khan seizes power; Majlis eventually recognizes him and forces Ahmad Shah to appoint him as Premier, then in 1925, they dopse the last Qajar and proclaim Reza Khan as Reza Shah 1925. He takes name Pahlavi, and forces all Persians to get surnames.
Headings of reforms: Liberation for Foreign Dominance
Adminsitrative and economic reforms
Social and cultural progress.
World War II created an intolerable situation and he
abdicated in 1941 in favor of his son.
Comparison of Reza Shah to Ataturk
Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi:
Mosaddiq- nationalized Anglo Iranian Oil Company, toppled in 1953. From then until 1979, Shah ruled as a dictator.
1979: Iranian revolution topples the Shah’s government
(sorry for the links to a database requiring payment)
Thunayyan (Al Thunayyan Branch)
Farhan (Al Farhan Branch)
Mishari (Al Mishari Branch)
Muhammad bin Saud (Founder of the Al Saud Dynasty)
Turki (Al Turki Branch)
Jiluwi (Bin Jiluwi Branch)
Saud (Saud al-Kabir Branch)
Abd al-Rahman (Abd al-Rahman Branch)
Abd al-Aziz (Founded Modern Saudi Arabia)
Saud (King 1952-1964))
Faysal (King 1964-1975))
Khalid (King 1975-1982))
Fahd (King 1982-2005)
Abdallah (King 2005-????)
Wahhabi/Saudi alliance goes back
to 18th century. They had captured
Ibn Saud: b. 1880. d. 1953.
British had made treaties with many of the coastal Amirs; Ottomans advanced south of Kuwayt to al-Hasa.
1924: Conquers the Hijaz of Amir Husaein
1932: Conquers Asir,
Pilgrimage: 150,000; 250,000 in 1926
Oil: found in Dhahran in 1938
Government: No real government—traditional “tribal leadership”
His son Saud succeeded him, but the princes gave government to Faysal in 1958—an influential and able King.
Muhammad Ali’s Dynasty and other rulers of
1917-1918: Egyptian Expeditionary Force,
1919 Revolution. Sa’d Zaghloul “Largest revolution in Modern Egyptian history. Formed the Wafd party. Given no hearing by the British or US.
1922: Led eventually to the end of the Protectorate; Fuad changed his title to King. Wafd won democratic elections. Assassination of the British commander of the Egyptian army led to a crisis.
Three parties: British, Wafd, King.
Taha Husayn and the Egyptian renaissance
1930s: Muslim Brotherhood. Ustadh Hassan Banna
The Qur’an is our constitution
1936: New treaty at the death of Fuad.
World War II: British forced Wafd
in to power but also ran things and made
Goldschmidt and Davidson credit Iraqi Premier Nuri al-Said’s quest for a single
1948: Farouk fought the Jewish state, even though unprepared. Signed Armistice in 1949.
1952: Prime Minister sent commandos
to fight the British in the
Military wound up seizing control of the government and forcing out Farouk.
1954: Agreed to end British
Occupation in 1956. June 1956-Suez Canal Zone reverts to