13: Arab Bitterness


Arab Identity: before the 20th century, there was little of this. Ottomans generally looked doen on pis arablar “dirty Arabs” a reference, moreover, to nomads more than to those who spoke Arabic. Some indications in the 19th century of an emerging sense of being an Arab, but no real coalescing of Arab identity.


¼ of Arab-speakers were Christians or other religious minorities.

Orthodox Christians

Monophysite Christians (i.e. Armenian church, which rejects Chalcedon 451 CE determination that Jesus Christ is “Truly God and Truly Man” as two separate natures, instead maintaining that the divine and human natures are “inseparably combined in a complete humanity that was animated by a rational soul.” )

Maronites: Uniate church (like Ukrainian Catholics).


Mission schools—AIU, Protestants, Catholics, etc. AUB was founded as Syrian Protestant College.

1875: Secret society formed in Beirut probably to make Lebanon independent.


Abd al-Rahman al-Kawakabi 1890s: introduced the idea of reviving the Arab Calipate.

Pan Islamic movement of 1860s had stressed the Caliphate; Ottomans began to emphasize that they were heirs to the Caliphal tradition. Abdulaziz r. 1861-1876 emphasized the title.  SO did Abdulhamid.


1908: Young Turk Revolution: sent shockwaves as men in Arab capitals met to propose and elect representatives to the Majlis.


Ottoman Decentralization Party




1914: World War I. Probably interested in opposing Russia (Caucasus area) and Britain (Egypt).


1915: British contact Husayn, Sherif of Mecca. Became Amir in 1908.

Genealogical chart



Sharif Hussein bin Ali (1853-1931). Proclainmed himself King of the Lands of the Arabs and Caliph after the War. Ruled Hijaz until 1924.

And his 3 sons and their lines.  Fourth Son: Amir Zeid.

Proclamation of Indpendence: http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/arabindependence_hussein.htm


r. 1924-25



Amir 1921

Feisal 1883-1933
King of Syria 1920
King of Iraq 1921-33
  Iraq became independent in 1932.


Abdul Ilah

Regent in Iraq

Talal 1909-1972. r. 1951-52

Ghazi 1912-1939. King 1933-1939
Killed in mysterious sports car accident




Husein 1935-1999. r. 1952-1999

Feisal II b. 1935. r. 1939-1958

Deposed by Abd al-Karim Qassim




Zeid (1898-1970)—Son of  Sharif Hussain. Appointed head of the Royal House, but did not rule as Iraq was proclaimed a republic.


Abdullah r. 1999-






TE Lawrence Map:



Husayn-McMahon correspondence

Goldschmidt/Davidson: think that only Lebanon was excluded from Arab rule.

Jemal Pasha-his ruthlessness and executions aroused anger and Faisal became a convert to the “Arab” cause.

Ottomans defeated in 1918.

Arabs assumed the right to self determination was promised to them.

Sykes Picot http://www.mideastweb.org/mesykespicot.htm#Map%20I

Balfour Declaration

Postwar settlement: Paris Peace conference

King Crane Commission

Great power meeting in San Remo 1920- Sets up Mandates.  Treaty signed at Sèvres in 1920.

Lebanon: separated from Syria. Alexandretta to Turkey in 1939.






Chapter 14


Modernizing Rulers in Independent States



Independent States arose from the conflict of World War I


Turkey: Mustafa Kemal (Attaturk) 1881-1938. An Ottoman general drives out the Great Powers and creates the Republic of Turkey

Iran: Reza Shah Pahlavi: Soldiers and nationalists drive out both British and Russians and replace the Qajar Shah with the first Pahlavi Shah.

Saudi Arabia: Abd al-Aziz b. Abd Al-Rahman Ibn Saud: The Saudi royal family unites with the Wahhabis to establish control in most of Arabia.




1915: Armenian deportation; 1 million killed. Armenian republic formed, but it was absorbed part by Russia and part by Turkey by 1920. Ataturk: commander of Dardanelles defence against Western Allies that yar.

1918 Young Turk leaders Enver, Jemal and Talat went into Caucasus.


French in Cilicia, Italians in SW Antalya, Bolsheviks renounced claims to Istanbul and Straits.


May 1919: Greeks land at Smyrna, then at Samsun on the Black Sea.

Summer 1919: Kemal elected by nationalist congress, and Turkish Nationalists favoring a republic win new parliamentary elections.

1920: M. Kemal escapes to Ankara, outside Ottoman and Allied control.

1920: Severes treaty: http://history.sandiego.edu/gen/WW1Pics/81584.jpg

Straits: Managed by Allies

Istanbul: Could be removed from Turtkish control if it infringed on minority rights

Eastern Anatolia: Independent Armenia

Autonomous Kurdistan

Greece gets Smyrna and Thrace

Italy and France get parts of SW Anatolia

Arabs get British and French Mandates

Capitulations reinstated.


1920: Turks and Russians divided Armenia.

France and Greeks fought deep inside Turkey—near Ankara

1922: Kemalist forces throw Greeks out of Anatolia. 

1923: British give up and Sultan flees.

Oct. 29 1923: Republic declared.

1923: Lausanne Conference—largely replaces Sevres.Institutes population exchange

   Turkey did not get Mosul, and ALexandretta was annexed only in 1939. 1936 Turkey got the right to defend the Straits.


1924: Abolished the Caliphate

Passed laws abolishing madrasa, Sufi orders, waqfs, Shaykh al-Islam, Imposed Swiss Code, Gave women equal rights in marriage, property and inheritance,  discarded veil (Vote for women: 1934) ,

Fex forbidden. Ottoman calendar rejected, (and Julian!) for Gregorian. “Arab Time” changed for European time. Metric weights and measure adopted. Formal day of rest. 1928-expunged reference to Islam in constitution and changed alphabet to European-based. Family names adopted, old titles like Effendi and Pasha dropped in favor of Bay and Bayan. 

1925: Kurds suppressed


Six Principles: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kemalism


Brief review of Turkish History. Islamist parties elected in 1995 and 2002.






Bahai History http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bah%C3%A1'%C3%AD_Faith#The_B.C3.A1b

No great romanticism about the Qajars.


1906 Constitution. 1907-Russians and British split up Persia.

Fall of Germany and Bolsheviks and retrteat of Turks left British as the strongest power in 1919-1920.


1921: Reza Khan seizes power; Majlis eventually recognizes him and forces Ahmad Shah to appoint him as Premier, then in 1925, they dopse the last Qajar and proclaim Reza Khan as Reza Shah 1925. He takes name Pahlavi, and forces all Persians to get surnames.


Headings of reforms: Liberation for Foreign Dominance

Internal security

Adminsitrative and economic reforms

Social and cultural progress.


World War II created an intolerable situation and he abdicated in 1941 in favor of his son. Britain invaded after a pro-Nazi coup in Iraq in 1941; Russia invaded after Hitler invaded Russia too.


Comparison of Reza Shah to Ataturk


Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi:

Mosaddiq- nationalized Anglo Iranian Oil Company, toppled in 1953. From then until 1979, Shah ruled as a dictator.


1979: Iranian revolution topples the Shah’s government





(sorry for the links to a database requiring payment)

folderclosed1.gif (895 bytes)Saud
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Thunayyan (Al Thunayyan Branch)
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Farhan (Al Farhan Branch)
join.gif (876 bytes)folderclosed1.gif (895 bytes)Mishari (Al Mishari Branch)
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Muhammad bin Saud (Founder of the Al Saud Dynasty)
blank.gif (842 bytes)bjoinbottom.gif (902 bytes)folderclosed1.gif (895 bytes)Abdallah
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(Al Turki  Branch)
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Jiluwi (Bin Jiluwi Branch)
blank.gif (842 bytes)blank.gif (842 bytes)blank.gif (842 bytes)bjoinbottom.gif (902 bytes)folderclosed1.gif (895 bytes)Faysal
blank.gif (842 bytes)blank.gif (842 bytes)blank.gif (842 bytes)blank.gif (842 bytes)join.gif (876 bytes)folderclosed1.gif (895 bytes)Abd al-Aziz
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Saud (Saud al-Kabir Branch)
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Abd al-Rahman (Abd al-Rahman Branch)
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Abd al-Aziz (Founded Modern Saudi Arabia)
blank.gif (842 bytes)blank.gif (842 bytes)blank.gif (842 bytes)blank.gif (842 bytes)blank.gif (842 bytes)blank.gif (842 bytes)join.gif (876 bytes)malefolderclosed.gif (873 bytes)Saud  (King 1952-1964))
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Faysal (King 1964-1975))
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Khalid (King 1975-1982))
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Fahd (King 1982-2005)
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Abdallah (King 2005-????)


Wahhabi/Saudi alliance goes back to 18th century. They had captured Mecca and Madina; Muhammad Ali threw them out. Turks garrisoned the Hijaz and the Sharif ruled as an Ottoman protégé. Aden was a British protectorate, within its India office.


Ibn Saud: b. 1880. d. 1953.

British had made treaties with many of the coastal Amirs; Ottomans advanced south of Kuwayt to al-Hasa.


1902: retakes Riyadh.

1924: Conquers the Hijaz of Amir Husaein

1932: Conquers Asir, forms Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.


Pilgrimage: 150,000; 250,000 in 1926


Oil: found in Dhahran in 1938

Government: No real government—traditional “tribal leadership”


His son Saud succeeded him, but the princes gave government to Faysal in 1958—an influential and able King.





Muhammad Ali’s Dynasty and other rulers of Egypt: http://uwyo.edu/sward/MME/Egyptian%20Dynasty.htm


1841-1914: Egypt an “Autonomous Province” in name but from 1882 on it was firmly in British control.

1914: Proclaimed Egypt’s independence of the Ottomans—still under British—and made Husayn Kamil its Sultan. “Protectorate”

1917-1918: Egyptian Expeditionary Force, conquered Syria and Palestine, under ALlenby, soon the High Commissioner of Egypt. 

1919 Revolution. Sa’d Zaghloul “Largest revolution in Modern Egyptian history. Formed the Wafd party. Given no hearing by the British or US.

1922: Led eventually to the end of the Protectorate; Fuad changed his title to King. Wafd won democratic elections.  Assassination of the British commander of the Egyptian army led to a crisis. 

Three parties: British, Wafd, King.


Taha Husayn and the Egyptian renaissance

1930s: Muslim Brotherhood. Ustadh Hassan Banna

  The Qur’an is our constitution


1936: New treaty at the death of Fuad.


World War II: British forced Wafd in to power but also ran things and made Cairo an important supply center.

Goldschmidt and Davidson credit Iraqi Premier Nuri al-Said’s quest for a single state in Iraq, Transjordan, Syria, Lenanon and Palestine. Egypt called for the Arab League to be formed. – 1945.


1948: Farouk fought the Jewish state, even though unprepared. Signed Armistice in 1949.

1952: Prime Minister sent commandos to fight the British in the Canal Zone. British killed 50 Egyptian Policemen. Next day Jan 26 1952, Black Saturday: http://www.nmhschool.org/tthornton/mehistorydatabase/egyptian_revolution.htm

Military wound up seizing control of the government and forcing out Farouk.


Land reforms. Nassers reforms began the dramatic drop in Coptic populations, and elimination of a strong Jewish community, and expelled British French and other Europeans, esp. after Suez War.

1954: Agreed to end British Occupation in 1956. June 1956-Suez Canal Zone reverts to Egypt, a few days later, 18 June, British troops left. But in July, Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal Company. October 1954 British, French and Israelis attacked. I found it interesting to see websites that ignored this part of the story; in contrast to the importance given it by G/D.



Cairo Tower  http://www.egy.com/landmarks/97-10-16.shtml