The preservice teacher understands the central concepts of the discipline(s), the tools of inquiry used in the discipline(s), the structures of the discipline(s), connections among disciplines, and the importance of presenting multiple perspectives and representations within the discipline(s).The preservice teacher uses these understandings to create learning experiences for students that make these aspects of the discipline(s) meaningful to students.
The preservice teacher has knowledge of human cognitive, social, physical, emotional and moral development and understands how these factors influence learning. The preservice teacher understands the importance of teacher observation of students to gauge developmental abilities; sees development as both a socio-cultural and biological phenomenon; understands the limitations of developmental theories; and he or she is capable of forming a responsive pedagogy.
The preservice teacher understands that schools are comprised of diverse learners who differ in their approaches to learning and that there are multiple theoretical models for understanding and addressing student diversity. He or she plans instruction with the assumptions that all students can learn and employs instructional methods in ways that connect learning with the students’ diverse experiences and needs. The preservice teacher cultivates a mutually respectful learning community that values all students.
The preservice teacher understands, employs, evaluates, and adjusts a variety of instructional strategies using a wide range of instructional materials and technology in order to achieve learning goals for all students. The preservice teacher understands and applies multiple instructional strategies, learning theories, and cognitive processes associated with types of learning.
The preservice teacher works to facilitate purposeful classroom and school learning environments that foster social interaction, active engagement, and collaboration with all stakeholders. The preservice teacher uses knowledge of the historical, social, and political roles of schooling in the U.S. to ensure equity for all children, especially given the relationship between schooling and the reproduction/mitigation of inequalities in the broader society. The preservice teacher knows and models principles of ethics, schooling for a democratic society, and social justice, especially in the development of mutual respect, support, and critical inquiry in the classroom. She or he is competent in behavior management that is reflective of the needs and practices of diverse students. This competence includes knowledge of classroom management skills, intervention strategies, motivational techniques, and monitoring and documenting student behavior. He or she critically reflects on personal history, beliefs, values, biases in relation to and as an agent of change within school and society.
The preservice teacher understands effective communications strategies and the role of language inlearning; models effective communication (including writing, speaking, and listening) using a variety of communications tools; and demonstrates sensitivity to differences in communication. She or he uses effective questioning and other discourse strategies that promote learner understanding and encourage convergent and divergent thinking. The preservice teacher uses, and facilitates the use of a variety of media communications tools and technology to enrich learning opportunities.
The preservice teacher can select and create appropriate learning experiences based upon principles of effective instruction, both as an individual and team member. The preservice teacher considers the following factors when planning for short and long-term learning: individual nature of the student; national, state, and district standards; curriculum goals; subject matter; assessment; instructional strategies; learning theory; student development; and learning styles. He or she evaluates plans and makes systematic adjustments as needed to address needs of the class and individual needs of diverse learners. The preservice teacher’s planning includes critically evaluating, adapting, and incorporating a variety of commercially and teacher-made materials to enhance instruction.
The preservice teacher understands, selects, constructs, and uses a variety of assessment methods and strategies such as standardized, performance-based, individual, whole group, self, peer, and teacher evaluations. The preservice teacher understands issues related to the accuracy of assessment results. She or he uses assessment in conjunction with students’ experiences, learning behaviors, and parent reports to guide instruction, promote student growth, and for documentation. The preservice teacher understands tools of assessment, appropriate use of tools, relationship of instruction and assessment, and assessment issues.
The preservice teacher demonstrates self-assessment, individual and collective inquiry and life-long learning traits to support personal growth and professional development. The preservice teacher accesses resources such as literature, colleagues, observations, and/or classroom data to support her or his growth and development and that of colleagues.
The preservice teacher fosters collaborative relationships with school colleagues, parents, and others in the larger community. The preservice teacher cares about all students’ well-being; as a result the preservice teacher understands and implements relevant laws and participates in appropriate consultation in respectful, productive ways with all stakeholders. He or she understands and appreciates that factors outside school influence students’ lives and learning and is an advocate for students. The preservice teacher fosters relationships with school colleagues, parents, and others in the larger community. The preservice teacher cares about all students’ well-being; as a result the preservice teacher understands and implements relevant laws and consults regularly and in respectful, productive ways with all stakeholders. He or she understands and appreciates that factors outside school influence students’ lives and learning and is an advocate for students.