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University of Wyoming Extension

College of Agriculture and Natural Resources

Water Quality for Wyoming Livestock and Wildlife

B-1183

 A review of the literature pertaining to the health
effects of inorganic contaminants

M. F. Raisbeck DVM, PhD, DABVT,
S.L Riker BS,
C.M. Tate DVM, PhD,
R. Jackson PhD,
M.A. Smith PhD,
K.J. Reddy PhD,
J.R. Zygmunt BS

 

 

 

 

 

 
                Click cover for entire publication       

Introduction

Abbreviations
ElementShort ExposureChronic ExposureRationale
Arsenic
(Summary)
1 mg/L1 mg/LDoes not seem to be a carcinogen in livestock; therefore, a concentration that protects against cytotoxic effects should be safe (pg 8).
Barium
(Summary)
No recommendationNo recommendationUntil there is better data we cannot make any firm recommendation regarding Barium. See text for interim suggestions (pg 13).
Fluoride
(Summary)
2 mg/L2 mg/LPrevents dental lesions in most sensitive life stage. Fully mature animals may be able to tolerate more (pg 18).
Molybdenum
(Summary)
0.3 mg/L0.3 mg/LPrevents secondary Cu deficiency and poor performance (pg 24).
Nitrate
(Summary)
500 mg/L500 mg/L Prevents acute death and abortion in well-man-aged cattle. Dry diets high in NO3 may require lower concentrations (pg 28)..
Nitrite
(Summary)
100 mg/L100 mg/LPrevents acute death and abortion in well-man-aged cattle. Dry diets high in NO3 may require lower concentrations (pg 28).
pH
(Summary)
No recommendationNo recommendationThere is considerable evidence that animals toler-ate a much wider range than the commonly cited 6.5-8.5, but we could not find sufficient informa-tion to make specific recommendations (pg 32).
Selenium
(Summary)
0.1 mg/L0.1 mg/LPrevents selenosis in equidae. Can probably tolerate slightly high concentrations for very short periods (pg 38)
Sodium
(Summary)
4000 mg/L1000 mg/LAssuming normal feedstuff Na concentration and no other water sources, these concentrations should protect against acute lethality or chroni-cally, poor performance (pg 43).
Sulfate
(Summary)
1800 mg/L1000 mg/LAssuming normal feedstuff S concentration, acute death may occur in ruminants at concentrations greater than 2,000, especially if not allowed time to acclimate. Long-term consumption result in poor performance (pg 47).
TDS
(Summary)
No recommendationNo recommendationWe do not recommend relying upon TDS to evaluate water quality for livestock and wildlife (pg 50).

 

Here are recommendations from other agencies for elements that we did not research,
but still felt were important...

Element

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Primary Standards (Human)

Australia and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC)

Canadian Livestock and Water Quality Guidelines

Beryllium

0.004 mg/L

N/A

0.1 mg/L

Boron

N/A

5 mg/L

5 mg/L

Cadmium

0.005 mg/L

0.01 mg/L

0.02 mg/L

Chloride

N/A

N/A

15,000 mg/L

Chromium

0.1 mg/L

1 mg/L

1 mg/L

Cobalt

N/A

1 mg/L

1 mg/L

Copper

N/A

0.5 mg/L

0.5-5 mg/L

Iron

N/A

N/A

0.3 mg/L

Lead

0.015 mg/L

0.1 mg/L

0.1 mg/L

Magnesium

N/A

N/A

6,000 mg/L

Manganese

N/A

N/A

0.05 mg/L

Mercury

0.002 mg/L

0.002 mg/L

0.003 mg/L

Uranium

N/A

0.2 mg/L

0.2 mg/L

 

Acknowledgements

Bibliography


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