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Department of Veterinary Sciences|College of Agriculture and Natural Resources

Endangered Species: Black Footed Ferret

The department undertakes research in two endangered species that are native to Wyoming: the black- footed ferret and the Wyoming toad. A major focus is on diseases of the black-footed ferret, which is being re-introduced into native habitat following a successful captive breeding program.


  • Burns R, Williams ES, O'Toole D, Dubey JP: 2003, Toxoplasma gondii infections in captive black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes), 1992-1998: clinical signs, serology, pathology, and prevention. J Wildl Dis. 2003 Oct;39(4):787-797

  • Williams, E. S., and E. T. Thorne. 1996. Infectious and parasitic diseases of captive carnivores, with special emphasis on the black-footed ferret. Review Scientific and Technical Office of International Epizootics 15: 91-114.

  • Williams, ES, Mills, DR, Kwiatkowski DR, Thorne ET, Borerger-Fields A (1994). Plague in a black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes). J Wildl Dis 30: 581 – 585.

  • Williams, E. S., S. L. Anderson, J. Cavender, C. Lynn, K. List, C. Hearne, and M. J. G. Appel. 1996. Vaccination of black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) x Siberian polecat (M eversmanni) hybrids and domestic ferrets (M. putorius furo) against canine distemper. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 32: 417-423.

  • Williams, E. S., E. T. Thorne, D. R. Kwiatkowski, K. Lutz, and S. L. Anderson. 1991. Reproductive biology and management of captive black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes). Zoo Biology 10:383-398.

  • Williams, E. S., E. T. Thorne, M. J. G. Appel, and D. W. Belitsky. 1988. Canine distemper in black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) from Wyoming. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 24:385-398.

  • Thorne, E. T. and E. S. Williams. 1988. Disease and endangered species: The black-footed ferret as a recent example. Conservation Biology 2:66-74.

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