Skip to Main Content

Apply Now to the University of Wyoming apply now

Dr. B. R. Frost

Emeritus Professor

Dr. B. R. Frost, Emeritus Professor at the University of Wyoming.Office Phone: 307-766-4290
Fax Phone: (307) 766-6679

P.O. Box 3006
Laramie, Wyoming 82071-3006
Office: ESB 3048

➤ Personal Website


Geology, PhD, University of Washington, 1973
Geology, MS, University of Washington, 1971
Geology, BA, University of Virginia, 1969

My research has concentrated in several fields in petrology. My major fields of interest include:

Geologic evolution of the Wyoming Province:  The Wyoming province is one of the oldest Archean provinces in North America and over the years, with ample help from students and colleagues we have been able to subdivide it into several domains. Our research continues on the structural evolution of the Teton Range and whether the Wyoming and Slave Cratons were connected in the early Archean.


Koesterer, M. E., Frost, C. D., Frost, B. R., Hulsebosch, T. P., Bridgwater, D., and Worl, R. G. (1987) Development of the Archean crust in the Medina Mountain area, Wind River Mountains, Wyoming (U.S.A.). Precambrian Research, 37, 287-304.

Frost, C.D., Frost, B.R., Chamberlain, K.R., and Hulsebosch, T.P. (1998) The Late Archean history of the Wyoming Province as recorded by granitic magmatism in the Wind River Range, Wyoming. Precambrian Research, 89, 145-173.

Frost, B.R., Frost, C.D., Hulsebosch, T.P. and Swapp, S.M. (2000) Origin of the charnockites of the Louis Lake batholith, Wind River Range, Wyoming. Journal of Petrology, 41, 1759-1776.

Frost, B.R., Chamberlain, K. R., Swapp, S., Frost, C.D., and Hulsebosch, T.P. (2000) Late Archean structural and metamorphic history of the Wind River Range: Evidence for a long-lived active margin on the Archean Wyoming craton. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 112, 564-578.

Chamberlain, K.R., Frost, C.D., and Frost, B.R. (2003) Early Archean to Mesoproterozoic evolution of the Wyoming Province: Archean origins to modern lithospheric architecture. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 40, 1357-1374.

Frost, B.R., Frost, C.D., Corina, M., Chamberlain, K.R., and Kirkwood, R. (2006) The Teton-Wind River domain: a 2.68-2.67 Ga active margin in the western Wyoming Province. Canadian Journal of Earth Science, 43, 1489-1501.

Frost, C.D., Frost, B.R., Kirkwood, R., and Chamberlain, K.R. (2006) The tonalite-trondjhemite-granodiorite (TTG) to granodiortie-granite-monzogranite (GGM) transition in the Late Archean plutonic rocks of the central Wyoming province. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 43, 1419-1431

Frost, C.D., Fruchey, B. L., Chamberlain, K.R., Frost, B. R., (2006) Archean crustal growth by lateral accretion of juvenile supracrustal belts in the south-central Wyoming Province. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 43. 1533-1526.

Grace, R. I. B. Chamberlain, K.R., Frost, B.R., and Frost, C.D. (2006) Tectonic histories of the Paleo- to Mesoarchean Sacawee block and Neoarchean Oregon Trail structural belt of the south-central Wyoming Province. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 43, 1445-1467.

Seafloor metamorphism and the formation and metamorphism of serpentinites.  The first rocks I studied were metamorphosed serpentinites and for a long time I had shelved this topic.  I joined the IODP expedition 304 in 2004-2005 and that rejuvenated my interested in the processes of serpentinization and sea floor metamorphism. Susan Swapp and I plan to submit an NSF proposal to continue our study of serpentinization, particularly the processes by which magnetite forms  in serpentinite.


Evans, B. W., and Frost, B. R. (1975) Chrome-spinel in progressive metamorphism - A preliminary analysis. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 39, 959-972.

Frost, B. R. (1975) Contact metamorphism of serpentinite, chloritic blackwall, and rodingite at Paddy-Go-Easy Pass, Central Cascades, Washington. Journal of Petrology, 16, 272-313.

Frost, B. R. (1976) Limits to the assemblage forsterite-anorthite as inferred from peridotite hornfelses, Icicle Creek, Washington. American Mineralogist, 61, 732-750.

Frost, B. R. (1985) On the stability of sulfides, oxides and native metals in serpentinites. Journal of Petrology, 26, 31-63.

Peretti, A.; Dubessy, J.; Mullis, J.; Frost, B.R.; and Trommsdorff, V., (1992) Highly reducing conditions during Alpine metamorphism of the Malenco peridotite  (Sondrio, northern Italy) indicated by mineral paragenesis and H2 fluid inclusions. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology. 112, 329-340.

Schroeder, T., John, B., and Frost, B.R. (2002) Geologic implications of seawater circulation through peridotite exposed as slow-spreading mid-ocean ridger. Geology, 30, 367-370.

Frost, B.R. and Beard, J. S. (2007) On silica activity and serpentinization, Journal of Petrology, 48, 1351-1368.
Frost, B. R., Beard, J. S., McCaig, A., Condliffe, E., (2008) The Formation of Micro-Rodingites from IODP Hole U1309D: Key To Understanding the Process of Serpentinization. Journal of Petrology. In press.

Metamorphism and melting of sulfide ore deposits.  During metamorphism massive sulfide ore bodies may melt.  This process may concentrate precious metal, which go into the melt and may mobilize those metals to specific sites within an ore body, or even to areas away from the body.  Susan Swapp and I have been working on this for several years and still have several papers to write before we finish it up.


Frost, B.R., Mavrogenes, J.A., and Tompkins, A. (2002) Partial melting of sulfide ore deposits during medium and high-grade metamorphism. Canadian Mineralogist, 40, 1-18.

Frost, B. R., Swapp, S. M., and Gregory, R.W. (2005)  Prolonged Existence of Sulfide Melt in the Broken Hill Orebody, New South Wales, Australia, Canadian Mineralogist. 43,  479-493.

Tomkins, A. G., Frost, B.R., and Pattison, D.R.M., (2006) Arsenopyrite melting during metamorphism of sulfide ore deposits. Canadian Mineralogist, 44, 1045-1062.

Tomkins, A.G., Pattison, D.R.M., and Frost, B.R. (2007) On the initiation of metamorphic sulfide anatexis. Journal of Petrology, 48, 511-536.

Formation and evolution of Proterozoic anorthosites and related rocks: Laramie sits adjacent to one of the best-exposed anorthosite complexes in the world.  We have spent years studying the geology of the Laramie Anorthosite Complex.  Apart from a few papers we have yet to publish, this project is nearly finished.


Fuhrman, M. L., Frost, B. R., and Lindsley, D. H. (1988) The petrology of the Sybille Monzosyenite, Laramie Anorthosite Complex, Wyoming. Journal of Petrology, 29, 699-729.

Frost, B. R. and Touret, J. (1989) Magmatic CO2 and highly saline brines from the Sybille Monzosyenite, Laramie Anorthosite Complex, Wyoming.  Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 103, 178-186.

Geist, D. J., Frost, C. D., Kolker, A., and Frost, B. R. (1989) A geochemical study of magmatism across a major terrane boundary: Sr and Nd isotopes in Proterozoic granitoids of the southern Laramie Range, Wyoming. Journal of Geology, 97, 331-342.

Grant, J. A., and Frost, B. R. (1990) Contact metamorphism and partial melting of pelitic rocks in the aureole of the Laramie Anorthosite Complex, Morton Pass, Wyoming. American Journal of Science, 290, 425-472.

Scoates, J.S., Frost, C.D., Mitchell, J.N., Lindsley, D.H., and Frost, B.R. (1996) Residual-liquid origin for a monzonite intrusion in a mid-Proterozoic anorthosite complex: The Sybille intrusion, Laramie anorthosite complex, Wyoming. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 108, 1357-1371.

Markl, G., Frost, B.R., and Bucher, K. (1998) The origin of anorthosites and related rocks from the Lofoten Islands, Northern Norway: I. Field relations and estimation of intrinsic variables. Journal of Petrology, 39, 1425-1452.

Markl, G. and Frost, B.R. (1999) The origin of anorthosites and related rocks from the Lofoten Islands, Northern Norway: II. Calculation of parental liquid compositions for anorthosites. Journal of Petrology, 40, 61-77.

, 124, 243-267.

The origin and classification of granites.  Laramie sits adjacent to one of the most varied suites of ferroan granites in North America, which has lead Carol Frost and I to study the origin of these fascinating rocks.  This study is nearly finished; we have a few more papers to write.
Sherman granite east of Laramie.


Frost, B. R. and Frost, C. D. (1987) CO2, melts, and granul­ite metamor­phism. Nature, 327, 503-506. 
Frost, C.D. and Frost, B.R. (1997) High-K, iron-enriched rapakivi-type granites: the tholeiite connection. Geology, 25, 647-650.

Frost, C.D., Frost, B.R., Chamberlain, K.R., and Edwards, B.R. (1999) Petrogensis of the 1.43 Ga Sherman batholith, SE Wyoming: a reduced rapakivi-type anorogenic granite. Journal of Petrology, 40, 1771-1802.

Frost, B.R., Arculus, R.J., Barnes, C.G., Collins, W.J., Ellis, D.J., Frost, C.D. (2001) A geochemical classification of granitic rocks.  Journal of Petrology, 42, 2033-2048.

Frost, C.D., Bell, J.M., Frost, B.R., and Chamberlain, K.R. (2001) Crustal growth by magmatic underplating: isotopic evidence from the northern Sherman batholith. Geology, 29, 515-518.

Frost, C.D., Frost, B.R., Bell, J.M., and Chamberlain, K.R. (20020 The relationship between A-type granites and residual magmas from anorthosite: evidence from the northern Sherman batholith, Laramie Mountains, Wyoming, USA. Precambrian Research, 119, 45-71.

Anderson, I.C., Frost, C.D., and Frost, B.R. (2003) Petrogenesis of the Red Mountain pluton, Laramie anorthosite complex, Wyoming: implications for the origin of A-type granites. Precambrian Research. 124, 243-267.

Bucher, K. and Frost, B.R. (2006) Fluid transfer in High-grade metamorphic terrains intruded by anorogenic granites: The Thor Range, Antarctica. Journal of Petrology, 17, 567-593.

Kumar, V.K., Frost, C.D., Frost, B.R., and Chamberlain, K.R. (2007) The origin of the Chimakurti-Uppalapadu plutons, Eastern Ghats belt, India: An unusual association of tholeiitic, A-type and alkaline magmatism. Lithos, 97, 30-57.

Frost, B.R. and Frost, C.D. (2008) On charnockites, Gondwana Research, 13, 30-44.

The controls of oxygen fugacity in petrologic processes and the stability of Fe-Ti oxides in igneous rocks:  This topic has long been a interest of mine, which has cause me to delve in to processes ranging from metamorphic to igneous.  Although I have mostly moved into other fields much of my current work on serpentinite relates to oxygen fugacity and oxides.

Photomicrograph of Fe-TI oxides:


Frost, B. R., (1979a) Mineral equilibria involving mixed-volatiles in a C-O-H fluid phase: The stabilities of graphite and siderite.  American Journal of Science, 279, 1033-1059.

Frost, B. R., 1979b, Metamorphism of iron-formation: Parageneses in the system Fe-Si-C-O-H. Economic Geology 74, 775-785.

Frost, B. R. (1985) On the stability of sulfides, oxides and native metals in serpentinites. Journal of Petrology, 26, 31-63.

Frost, B. R., Lindsley, D. H., Andersen, D. J. (1988) Fe-Ti oxide - silicate equilibria: Assemblages with fayalitic olivine. American Mineralogist. 73, 727-740.

Lindsley, D. H., Frost, B. R., Andersen, D. J., and Davidson, P. M. (1990) Fe-Ti oxide - silicate equilibria: Assemblages with orthopyroxene.  The Geochemical Society, Special Publication no. 2, 103-119.

Lindsley, D.H., and Frost, B.R. (1992) Equilibria among Fe-Ti oxides, pyroxenes, olivine, and quartz: Part I. Theory. American Mineralogist, 77, .987-1003.

Frost, B.R. and Lindsley, D.H. (1992) Equilibria among Fe-Ti oxides, pyroxenes, olivine, and quartz: Part II. Application. American Mineralogist, 77, 1004-1020.

Ballhaus, C. and Frost, B. R. (1994) The generation of oxidized CO2-bearing basaltic melts from reduced CH4-bearing upper mantle sources. Geochemica Cosmochemica Acta 58, 4931-4940.

Xirouchakis, D., Lindsley, D.H., and Frost, B.R., 2001, Assemblages with titanite (CaTiOSiO4), Ca-Mg-Fe olivine and pyroxene, Fe-Mg-Ti oxides, and quartz: Part II Application. American Mineralogist 86, 254-264.

Contact Us

Department of Geology and Geophysics

1000 E. University Ave.

Laramie, WY 82071-2000

Phone: 307-766-3386

Fax: 307-766-6679


Department logo
Find us on Facebook (Link opens a new window) Find us on Twitter (Link opens a new window)

1000 E. University Ave. Laramie, WY 82071
UW Operators (307) 766-1121 | Contact Us | Download Adobe Reader

Accreditation | Virtual Tour | Emergency Preparedness | Employment at UW | Privacy Policy | Harassment & Discrimination | Accessibility Accessibility information icon