This technique enables students to engage in reflection and self-assessment regarding
their greatest area/s of confusion. The guiding question might be, “What was the most
confusing concept that we discussed today?”
This technique also enables instructors to assess student learning. In fact, this
modality is dubbed a CAT (classroom assessment technique) by Angelo and Cross (1993).
Students can write their muddy points on a piece of paper, notecard or via a polling
software. In fact, muddy points can be submitted using the Snowball technique.
In online synchronous sessions, Muddy Points can be quickly submitted using the Zoom
chat feature. In fact, students could submit a Muddy Point directly to the Learning
Assistant at the end of every synchronous session using the chat feature.
References and Resources
Angelo and Cross (1993) Classroom Assessment Techniques. 2nd Edition. San Francisco: